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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
collective name for chemical reactions occuring within a cell
metabolism
metabolic reaction that requires energy
anabolic reaction
metabolic reaction that is energy releasing
catabolic reaction
organisms that use organic compounds as their carbon and energy sources
chemoorganotrophs
organisms that obtain carbon and energy from co2
autotrophs
chemical tools needed to make monomers
nutrients
nutrients required in large amounts
macronutrients
nutrients required in small or trace amounts
micronutrients
the typical cell is about ___ % carbon
50%
the major element in all classes of macromolecules
carbon
next most abundant element in the cell after carbon
nitrogen
N2 (nitrogen gas) can only be a source for certain bacteria known as
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
ammonia and nitrate are examples of ____ sources which are in inorganic form
nitrogen
macronutrient required by cell primarily for synthesis of nucleic acids and phospholipids
phosphorus
macronutrient required by cell because of structural role in certain amino acids and present in a number of vitamins
sulfur
macronutrient that originates mostly from inorganic sources such as sulfate or sulfide
sulfur
macronutrient required by cell to make enzymes, some of which are involved in protein synthesis
potassium
macronutrient required by cell in order to stabilize ribosomes, cell membranes, and nucleic acids. also required for activity of many enzymes
magnesium
macronutrient that helps stabilize bacterial cell wall and plays a key role in heat stability of endospores
calcium
required by some but not all organisms. need often reflects habitat of organism
sodium
plays major role in cellular respiration, also a key component of the cytochromes and proteins involved in electron transport
iron
iron-binding agents that solubilize iron and transport it into the cell
siderophores
structurally complex phenolic siderophores
enterobactins
without ___, pathogens would be unable to initiate an infection due to iron limitations
siderophores and enterobactins (iron binding agents)
organic compounds that are required in very small amounts and only by some cells
growth factors
includes vitamins, amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines; most microorganisms are able to synthesize all of these compounds, but some require them preformed from environment
growth factors
most commonly needed growth factors; most funtion as coenzymes
vitamins
nutrient solutions used to grow microorganisms in the laboratory
culture media
culture media where exact contents are known
defined media
culture media where exact contents are unknown (rotting meat/yeast could be used)
undefined (complex media)
a culture containing only a single kind of microorganism
pure culture
unwanted organisms within a culture
contaminants
the ability to do work; measured in units of kilojoules (kJ)
energy
energy released that is available to do useful work
free energy
pH 7, 25 degrees C, all reactants and products @ 1 M initial concentration
standard conditions
when G is negative, reaction proceeds w/ ___ of free energy; such reactions are ___
release; exergonic
when G is positive, the reaction ____ energy; such reactions are ____
require; endergonic
amount of energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction to the reactive state
activation energy
substance that lowers activation energy
catalyst
catalysts of biological reactions are proteins called
enzymes
in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the enzyme temporarily combines w/ the reactant which is termed a ___; this forms a _______
substrate; enzyme-substrate complex
the enzyme is generally much ____ than the substrate
larger
small portion of enzyme to which substrates bind
active site