Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pathology is...?
The study of disease.
Etiology is...?
The study of the cause of a disease.
Pathogenesis is...?
Development of disease.
Infection is...?
Colonization of the body by pathogens.
Disease is...?
An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally.
Symbiosis is...?
The relationship between normal microbiota and the host.
Commensalism is...?
One organism is benefitted and the other is not affected at all.
Mutualism is...?
Both organisms benefit.
Parasitism is...?
One organisms is benefitted at the expense of the other.
Microbial antagonism is...?
Competition between microbes.
How do normal microbiota protect the host?
Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy.
Producing acids.
Producing anti-bacterial chemicals.
What are probiotics?
Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect.
What is Koch's Postulates?
Used to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
What is Koch's 1st Postulate?
The same pathogen must be present in every case.
What is Koch's 2nf Postulate?
The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.
What is Koch's 3rd Postulate?
The pathogen must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy animal.
What is Koch's 4th Postulate?
The pathogen from the inoculated animal must be the same as the original from step 1.
A symptom is...?
Change in body function that is felt by a patient as the result of a disease.
A sign is...?
Change in the body that can be measured or observed as the result of a disease.
A syndrome is...?
A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease.
A communicable disease(or contagious) is...?
Easily spread from 1 host to another.
A non-communicable disease is...?
A disease that is not transmitted.
An incidence is...?
Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time.
Prevalence is...?
Fraction of a population having a disease at any given time.
Sporadic disease is...?
A disease that occurs occasionally in a population.
Endemic is...?
Disease constantly present in a population.
Epidemic is...?
Disease acquired by many in a short time.
Pandemic is...?
Worldwide epidemic.
Herd immunity is...?
Immunity in most of a population.
Acute disease is...?
Symptoms develop rapidly.
Chronic disease is...?
Disease develops slowly.
Subacute disease is...?
Symptoms between acute and chronic.
Latent disease is...?
Disease with a period of no symptoms.
Local infection is...?
limited to a small area.
Systemic infection is...?
throughout the body.
Focal infection is...?
a systemic infection that began as a local infection.
Bacteremia is...?
bacteria in the blood.
Septicemia is...?
growth of bacteria in the blood.
Toxemia is...?
Toxins in the blood.
Viremia is...?
Viruses in the blood.
Primary infection is...?
Acute infection that causes the initial illness.
Secondary Infection is...?
Opportunistic infection after a primary infection.
Sub-clinical disease is...?
No noticeable signs or symptoms.
Predisposing Factors are...?
Inherited traits
Climate and weather
humans are reservoirs of what?
HIV, gonorrhea
(carriers may have unapparent infections or latent diseases)
Animals are reservoirs of what?
Rabies, Lyme Disease
Some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans.
Non-Living (soil) is a reservoir for what?
Botulism, tetanus
Direct contact is...?
requires close association between infected and susceptible host.
Indirect contact is...?
spread by fomites
What are fomites?
nonliving objects
A vehicle is...?
transmission by an inanimate reservoir (like food or water)
A vector is...?
disease carriers
(arthropods, especially fleas, ticks and mosquitos)
Mechanical vectors are...?
arthropod carries pathogen on feet
Biological vectors are...?
pathogen reproduces in vector.
Nosocomial Infections are...?
From hospitals
5-15% of all hospital patients acquire nosocomial infections
What is C. difficile?
Affects colon.
Symptoms include changes in bowel function.
6000/yr infected.
Pathology of this organism has changed over time with wide-spread use of antibiotics.
Reasons for Emerging Infectious Diseases
Contributing Factors
--Evolution of new strains
Inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides
Changes in weather patterns
Modern transportation
Ecological disaster, war, expanding human settlement
Animal control measures
Public Health Failure