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27 Cards in this Set

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Frederick Griffith
n 1928 discovers transformation in bacteria and establishes the foundation of molecular genetics.
DNA structure:
Replication
the process of making copies of strands of DNA. Existing DNA is used as a template for synthesizing the new strands.
DNA structure:
Transcription
making mRNA from DNA template
DNA structure:
Translation
using mRNA to make protein
Polymerase
whole purpose it an enzymes that adds nucleotides; binds on promotor (starting point of dna sequencing)until it reaches terminator
Promotor
staring point for polymerase to make sequence
RNA polymerase
mRNA will attach to a ribosome: p site: always filled first
a site:
codon
three nucliotide sequence
AUG
start codon - which is the same aa (MET)
anticodon
nucliotide complimentary of codon
UAA
UAG
UGA
STOP CODONS - do not code for any aa - will end translation
DNA REPLICATION
PURPOSE, BEGINNING POINT,
AND ENDING POINT
To duplicate the cell's genome,
Origin, and Origin or the end of a linear DNA molecule
DNA Transcription
purpose, beginning point,
and ending point
To synthesize RNA, Promotor,
and terminator
DNA Translation
purpose, beginning point,
and ending point
To synthesize polypeptides, AUG start codone and UAA, UAG, OR UGA stop codons
operon
is the gene and all the regulatory regions
repressor
will bind to operator and inhibit RNA transcription
inducer
will bind to repressor to allow transcription to occure - stops repressor from binding to operator
lac operon
feedback mechanism - for turning transcription on and off.
operator
repressor binding site
AMES test
test drug companies use to find if something/chemical is mutagenic.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
to take a very small amount of DNA, and make lots of copies - DNA replication in a test tube
Polymerase Chain Reaction in a tube needs what four things?
DNA, primers (the sequence of gene of interest), nucleotides, and DNA polymerase
process of PCR
denature DNA in thermocycler (94C), then cool it down to 72C, DNA primer going to tell polymerase where to start and stop, as polymerase moves down operator will add complimentory nuclotides until hits terminator. repeating process (heating/cooling) doubling strand quantity.
what is PCR being used for?
to identify HIV in samples of blood. have primers for the virus to try to amplify to a detectible level. also testing for west nile, Hep B, Hep C.
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
going to be used in order how related organism are to each other.
process of Nucleic Acid Hybridization
take known DNA sample, and sample of unknown DNA sample. denature strands - allow to cool, strands will or will try to hook up together. look at structure, compare how they rehybridize together.
DNA probes
hybridized technique used to view comparison of DNA