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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Enzymes that degrade proteins.
Saucer Shaped Liquefication (Protease)
Funnel-like or inverted cone
Elongated sac, tubular, cylindrical
Liquefied to the walls of the tube in the upper region
Protein molecules that help catalyze metabolic pathways in the cells
The set of metabolic pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy
The set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units

Biosynthesize food materials
Function outside the cell to degrade large macromolecules.
Assist in catalytic reactions.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Shuttling of electrons down an electron transport chain involving cytochromes facilitates the movements of the protons to the outside of the cell.
Substrate level Phosphorylation
ATP is synthesized by __________ in which metabolic intermediates in pathways directly transfer high energy phosphates to ADP to synthesize ATP.
Fermentation tests
Determine if your unknown is capable of carrying out various fermentation reactions
Oxidative tests
Determine if your unknown carries out respiratory metabolism
Formic hydrpgenlyase
Splits formic acid to produce CO2 and O2
Nitrate respiration
Some facultative anaerobes can use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor in a type of anaerobic respiration called __________
Head Sparing
The phenomenon by which the brain continues to grow even though the body stops growing in a malnourished child (p. 122)
The average, or standard, developed for a specific population
Any point on a ranking scale of 1 to 99; percentiles are often used to compare a child's development to group norms.
REM sleep
Rapid Eye Movement sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed eyelids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves
Nerve cell, is the main component of the central nervous system
Outer layer of the brain that is involved in most thinking, feeling, and sensing
The nerve fiber that sends electrical impulses from one neuron to the dendrites of other neurons
Nerve fiber that receives the electrical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons
The point at which the axon of a sending neuron,meets the dendrites of a receiving neuron
Transient exuberance
Dramatic increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant's brain over the first two years of life
Brain functions are those that require basic common experiences (such as having things to see and hear) in order to develop
Brain functions are those that depend on particular, and variable, experiences (such as experiencing language) in order to develop
Sensation and Perception
The process by which a sensory system detects a particular stumlus

The process by which the brain tries to make sense of a stimulus such that the individual becomes aware of it
Binocular Vision
The ability to use both eyes in a coordinated fashion to focus on a single object
An involuntary physical response to a specific stimulus
Gross Motor Skills
Physical abilities that demand larger body movements, such as running, jumping, or climbing
Fine Motor Skills
Physical abilities that require precise, small movements such as picking up a coin
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome; a set of circumstances in which a seemingly healthy infant dies unexpectedly in his or her sleep
Protein-Calorie Malnutrition
Results when a person does not consume enough food to thrive
A disease caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency during the first year of life. Growth stops, body tissues waste away and the infant dies
A disease caused by protein-calorie deficiency during toddlerhood. The child's face, arms, and abdomen swell with water, sometimes making the child appear well fed. The child becomes more vulnerable to other diseases. Other body parts are degraded including the hair which becomes thin, brittle, and colorless
Key element to Piaget's theory: The cognitive process by which information is taken in and responded to
Sonsorimotor intelligence
Key element to Piaget's theory: From birth to about 2 years old, based on his theory that infants think exclusively with their senses and motor skills
Primary Circular Reactions
Key element to Piaget's theory: A type of feedback loop involving the infant's own body, in which infants take in experiences (such as sicking and grasping) and try to make sense of them
Secondary circular reactions
Key element to Piaget's theory:
A type of feedback loop involving the infant's responses to objects and other people
Object permanence
Key element to Piaget's theory:
The understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, touched, or heard
Tertiary Circular Reactions
Key element to Piaget's theory:
The most sophisticated type of infant feedback loop, involving active exploration and experimentation
Little scientist
Key element to Piaget's theory: Term for the stage-five toddler who learns about properties of object in his or her world through active experimentation
Deferred Imitation
The ability to witness, remember, and later copy a behavior they noticed hours or days earlier
The process of becoming so familiar witha stimulus that it no longer triggers the responses it did when it was originally experiences
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
An imaging technique in which the brain's magnetic properties are measured to reveal changes in activity levels in various parts of the brain
Information processing Theory
A theory of human congnition that compares thinking to the ways in which a computer analyzes data, through the processes of input, connections, stored memories, and output
Perceived opportunities for interacting with people, objects, or places in the environment. Infants perceive sucking, grasping, noisemaking, and many other affordances of objects at an early age
Visual Cliff
Perception, provides the illusion of a drop between one surface and another
Dynamic Perception
Perception that is primed to focus on movemnt and change
Child directed language
Form of speech used by adulat,
Hydrogen ion concentration (-log10[H+])

Affects proteins and other charged molecules in the cell
Bacteria that grow at or near neutral pH levels
Bacteria that grow at acidic pH values

ex: Thiobacillus thiooxidans that grows at pH 1
Bacteria that grow at alkaline pH

True alkalinophilic bacteria are found growing in environments such as soda lakes and high carbonate soils where the pH can reach 10 or aboce
Water diffuses from areas of low solute concentration where water is more plentiful to areas of high solute concentration where water is less available.
Medium where solute concentrations on the outside of the cell are lower than the cytoplasm.

Bacteria are not harmed by hypotonic solutions because the rigid cell wall protects the membrane from being damaged by the osmotic pressure exerted against it.
Environments where the solute concentration is the same inside and outside the cell.

Animal cells require isotonic environments or else cells will undergo lysis because only the fragile cell membrane surrounds the cell.

Tissue culture media for growing animal cells provides an isotonic environment to prevent cell lysis.
These environments exist when the solute concentration is greater on the outside of the cell relative to the cytoplasm, and this causes water to diffuse out of the cytoplasm.
A loss of water, dehydration of the cytoplasm, and shrinkage of the cell membrane away from the cell wall.

Considerable and often irreversible damage can occur to the metabolic machinery of the cell.
Require high concentrations of sodium chloride to grow. Examples are the halophilic bacteria that require 15-30% sodium chloride to grow and maintain integrity of their cell walls.

These bacteria, which belong to the Archaea are found in salt lakes, and brine solutions, and occasionally growing on salted fish.
Some microorganisms are capable of growth in moderate concentrations of salt.

ex: Staphylococcus aureus can tolerate sodium chloride concentrations that approach 3 M or 11%
Another group of organisms which are able to grow in environments where sugar concentrations are excessive.

ex: Xeromyces, a yeast that can contaminate and spoil jams and jellies
Organisms ordered into ______ of kingdoms, phyla, classes, orders/divisions, families, tribes, genera, and species.

The species defines the individual organism in the scheme, and for higher organisms, a species is defined as a group of interbreeding organisms that produce fertile offspring.
Some of the oldest examples of primitive organisms are probably early bacterial cells that have been preserved in fossilized mats occur in tide pools in places such as Australia and that date to 3.5 billion years ago.
Enterotube II
Miniaturized multitest system was developed for rapid identification of Enterobacteriacaea. It incorporates 12 different tests into a single ready-to-use tube that can be simultaneously inoculated in a moment's time with a minimum of equipment.