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59 Cards in this Set

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name 2 MAIN characteristics of microbes
small and can exist as single cells
who invented the microscope?
Robert Hooke
who was the first to see microorganisms andwhat did he call them
Antone Von Leuwenhoeke and he called them "wee animalcules"
what did Ferdinand Coln do?
he was the first to study the 'biology' of microbes, he lookes atthe life cycle of bacillus "vegatative cells". he also looked at the diversity of microbes
what were 2 important questions during the 1800's?
1. is there spontaneous generation?

2. what was the natur of infectious diseases?
who answered the question about spontaneous growth and how?
Louis Pasteur, he did an experiment using a flask. when it was left sterile nothing grew but when it was tilted it grew microbes.
who answered the question about the nature of infectious diseases?
Robert Koch. he showed that B.anthracis is in the blood of animals w/anthrax. then took the diaseased animals blood and injected it into a healthy animal and it became diseased. he did this 20X. and formulated "KOCH'S POSTULATE"
why is Koch's postulate used?
it is used to prove that a certain microorganism causes a certain disease
list the 4 steps in Koch's Postulate
1. show that the microbe is always present in a diseased host but not in a healthy post.

2.grow the microbe in a pure culture

3. show that the pure culture causes the disease.

4.reisolate the organism from the newly diseased host and show that it is the same as original one.
name the 3 domains of life
1. baceria
2. archae
3. eukarya
which domain(s) are prokaryoates
archae and bacteria
which domain(s) is eukaryotic
eukarya
name 2 main categories of energy and 2 categories of carbon
E= light and chemical
Carbon = CO2 and organic carbon
what is the average size of a cell membrane
8nm
how is the cell membrane held together in bacteria?
hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions
what kind of molecules can pass through the cell membrane
non -polor
small
how is the PO4 and glycerol held together in bacteria membrane?
ester bonds
what is the difference between Archea membrane and baccteria membrane
1. archae use ether rather than ester bonds

2. archae dont ahve fatty acids but instead have 'isoprenes'
name the 2 classes of phspholipids in archeal membrane
1. glycerol diethers - forms bilayer
2. glycerol tertraethers - forms monolayer (strong b/c of covalent bonds)
what is unique to Eukarya membranes?
the presence of sterols (which provide stability)
what do bacteria have that are similar to sterols in membranes?
haponoids
why dont archae need sterols or haponoids?
b/c they can have glycerol tertraethers which provide strength
how are large and charged particles movied across the membrane?
by membrane transport proteins
name 3 classes of proteins
1. uniporters - move one substance in 1 dierection
2.symporters - move 2 substances in same direction
3. antiporters - move 2 substances in opposite directions
name 3 categories of transport in terms of what drives the transport
1.group translocation
2. ABC transport
3. Simple transport
what is the energy provider in simple transport
concentration gradient
Simple transport
E from concentration gradient (gradient of 10 H+ (protons), pmf
ex. lac permease in e.coli
group translocation
-what is require
-where is energy coming from
series of proteins are required
E from PEP (phosphenolpyruvate)
ABC system
involves 'periplasmic' binding protein
E from ATP
name 3 functions of the cell wall
1. stability
2. shape
3. counteract turgor pressure
name the 3 layers of gram - bacteria
1. LPS (outer)
2. peptidoglycan -
perisplamic space
which organism is peptidoglycan found in?
bacteria ONLY
name the 2 sugar derivatives composing the peptidoglycan
1. N-acetylglucosamine
2. N- acetylmuramic acid
how are the 2 sugar derivatives of the peptidoglycan connected/
side chain of amino acid
which contains more peptidoglycan gram + or - ?
positive ~90%
what is the difference in the LPS and cytoplasmic membrane?
LPS is much more permeable like the cytoplasmic membrane
name the 2 polysacchardide making up the LPS layer
O-polysacchardide
core- polysaccharide
name the 3 enzymes in the periplasmic space
1. binding proteina in ABC system
2.hydrolytic enzymes
3. chemoreceptors
were are techoic acids found and what do they do
they are attached to the outer part of the gram + wall. they are negatively charged and helps maintain the pmf.
list the steps of gram staining
1. stain w/ crystal violet ~1min then rinse with water
2. stain w/ iodine ~1 min (fixes stain)
3. destain w/ alcohol or acetone ~20 sec
4. counterstain w/ safranin
name 2 ways pmf is generated
1. when e-s are transfered between H carriers and E carriers (organized to pick up h+ from the cytoplasm and release to env

2.H+ consuming reactions in the cytoplasm
what is the energy source of fermentation
organic C
name 6 characteristics of fermentation
1. Its an internal balanced redox rxn

2. only a partial amount of potential E is realeased

3. there is no external electron acceptor

4. there is no e- transport chain

5. not membrane associated, occurs in cytoplasm

6. ATP is formed enzymatically by transfer of ~po4
list the 3 steps in fermentation of glucose
1. 2 ATP is used to produce 2molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-po4 from glucose, 2ATP is produced. (prepatory step)

2. An oxidation occurs w/ NAD+ to produce pyruvate (2) + 2 NADH + 2H+ + 4ATP by substrate level phosphorylation. net = 2ATP

3. a reduction occurs to reoxidize NADH+H+ (required for fermentation)
name the 2 types of motility of microbes
1. gliding motility
2. suspended motility
what are the 2 mechanism of gliding motility
1. toothpaste tube
2. protein microfibrils
explain the structure of a bacterial flagella
its long, thin, hollow, 20nm in diameter, they have left handed helices
name the 3 types of arrangement of the flagela on the bacteria
1. polar (at one end)
2. liphotrichous (many flagella at one end)
3. peritrichous (located all over the bacteria)
what are flagellum composed of?
subunits called 'flagellin' which are synthesized in the cytoplasm.
how are flagellum conected to the cell
it is connected to the cell at a basal body by the hook
where are the 'rings' located on the gram - bacteria
a pair of outer rings ( one in the LPS layer and one in the peptidoglycan layer) and an inner pair in the cell membrane (MS rings and C rings)
what are the proteins between the inner rings and what do they do
FLI proteins - change the direction of the flaggellum

Mot-motility - use pmf to rotates the flagellum
how are the rings located in the gram + bacteria
a single inner pair (in and above the cell membrane)
how many H+s are needed to rotate the flaggelum one turn
1000
what is the maximum rate of rotation of the flagellum
200rps (1200rpm)
what is the velocity
20-80 um/sec
how do eukaryotic cells move?
movement of flagella or cilia
explain the structure of the eukaryotic flagellum
they have a "9+2" arrangement - 9 pairs of microtubules round the cell and 1 pair in the middle.
how is the eukaryotic flagellum powered?
it is powered by a protein (dynein) NOT my pmf as in bacteria flagellum