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149 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
zoonosis
occurs in animals and can be transmited to humans
vehicle
food, water, air,
vector
animals that carry pathogens
what impairs the hosts resistance to infection?
suppressed immune system, broken skin
principle sites of NI's
UTI, surgical site, lower resp, cutaneous infections,
EID
Emerging infectious disease.
EID factors?
new strains, new serovar, antibiotics, globl warming, animal contro
epidemiology
when and where occur, how transmitted in population
notifiable diease
infectious
morbidity
# infected
mortality
# deaths
reservoir
continual source of organism; adequate conditions for survival and mult.
reservoirs are?
human, animal, non living (soil, water...)
most common bacterial species
coagulase negative staphylococci
chain of transmission for NI's
direct & indirect contact
pathogenicity
ability to cause disease by overcoming defenses of hosts
virulence
degree or extent of pethogenicity
portals of entry
mucous membranes, skin, parenteral route
why pathogens have preferred portal of entry
determines occurence of disease
id50
virulence - infectious dose for 50% of sample population
ld50
potency of a toxin - lethal dose for 50% of sample population
adherence
attachment to host tissues at portal of entry
adhesins
surface molecules on pathogens, bind specifically to same surface receptors
name adhesins
glococlayx, pili, fimbriae, flagella
biofilms
masses of microbes that attach, multiply, 65% cause disease
how do capsules help cause disease?
impairs phagocytosis, prevents adhesin
how do m-protetins help cause disease?
heat and acid resistantt, resist phagocytosis by white blood cells
how do fimbriae help cause disease?
attach, taken into host cell
waxes help cause disease?
resists digestion by phagocytes?
what is antigen variation?
alters surface antigens, "mutates" before antibodies can respond
coagulases?
bact. enzymes coagulate blood - clot the blood
kinases?
bact. enzymes digest clots or fibrin
hyaluronases?
hydrolyze hyaluronic acids, cause gangrene
collagenase?
helps spread gangrene by breaking down collagen
IgA proteases?
destroy antibodies
invasins?
surface proteins, rearrange actin filamtents of cytoskeleton
siderophores?
proteins to obtain free iron
how else obtain iron?
receptors, toxins
toxin?
poisonous substance produced by certain microorganisms
exotoxins?
produced inside some bacteria as part of their growth and metabolism
toxoid?
altered exotoxin
antitoxin?
provide immunity to exotoxins
name 4 types of toxins
A-B = inhibits protein synthesis; membrane disruptin=lysis of host; superantigens=protein response
source, chemica structure and effects of endotoxins
outer portion of cell wall in gram-neg
how bacteria cause hypersensitivity?
body's intense reaction
plasmids
carries information that makes resistance to antibodies
lysogenic conversion
host cell takes on new characteristics
how do virus's evade the host defenses
mimic useful substances, have attachment sites
what are cytopathic effects?
invisible effects of viral infection
how does fungi cause disease?
metabolic products, allergic responses
protozoa and diseases?
plasmodium -> malaria, multiplication, ruptures. Toxoplasma, prevents normal acidification
helminths and diseases?
use host tissues -> parasitic masses; blocks lymph circulation
algae and diseases?
neurotoxins?
portal of exit?
the specific route a microbe uses to leave. secretion, excretions, discharge, and shedding.
3 common portals of exit
respiratory tract, gi tract, genitourinary tract
infections transmitted from the skin?
drainage, direct, indirect, nonliving
3 types of methods used to id viral isolates
wester blotting, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction
viral species?
group of viruses with same genetic info
3 characteristics that classify into families
1, nucleic acid type 2, strategy for replication 3, morphology
4 morphological types of viruses
helical (long rod), polyhedral (many sides), enveloped (spheres), complex (bacteriophage)
characteristics of viruses
single type of nucleic acid, multiply inside living cells using synthesizing machinery, NA is surrounded by a protein coat, cause syntheis to transfer to other cells
how is host range determined?
requirements of specific attachment
virion?
complete, fully developed, infectious viral particle with NA and protein coats
nucleic acid
either DNA or RNA, single OR double
capsid
protein coat, determined by nucleic acid
capsomeres
protein subunits, arrangement is characteristic
envelope
covers capsid, made from protein , lipids, and carbs
spikes
carb-protein complex, attach to surface
outcomes of lysogeny?
1. immune to reinfection by same phage 2. phage conversion: host-cell takes on new properties 3. specialized transduction (only certain genes can be transfered)
how differ in multiplication?
mechanism of entering, synthesis and assembly, maturation and release
Animal Viruses: attachment
attach to proteins and glycoproteins of plasma membrane, many sites bound
AV: entry
pinocytosis (fold inward), OR fusion
AV: uncoating
separation of nucleic acid in protein coat, capsid is digested
AV: biosynthesis
DNA or RNA are transcribed and translated
location of maturation
DNA & RNA: nucleus, retro: cytoplasm
molecular biology fo replication: DNA
single & (double-> polymerase cell enzyme transcribes DNA)
MB replication:RNA
must have reverse trascriptase
MB replication: retroviruses
RNA->DNA
enveloped viruses released from the cell?
budding
nonenveloped viruses released from the cells?
lysis
why difficult to associate viruses of diseases?
mechanisms of diease are similar
oncogene
part of genome that is affected by cancer causing alterations
oncogenic virus
causes tumors in animals
transformation?
tumor cells, acquire properties that are distinct from properties of uninfected cells
Human Papiloma Virus
cervical cancer
Epstein-Barr virus
cancer
Hepatitis B
liver cancer
Herpes Simplex virus
cold sores
HTLV
leukemia
latent viral infection
virus that remain inactive until reactived by immunosuppresion
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
measles, mental deterioration
progressive encephalitis
rubella, rapid mental deterioration
AIDS dementia complex
HIV (lentivirus), brain degeneration
prion
PROtetinaceous Infectious particle
how is a prion able to multiploy without nucleic acid
interaction between 2 proteins, mutates others
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru, scrapie, bovine spongiform
large vacuoles in brain
how do viruses enter plant cells?
wounds or assisted by plant parasites
viroid
short pieces of naked RNA, 300-400 nucleotides, no protein coat
pathogen
disease causing microorganisms
pathology
scientific study of disease
etiology
cause of disease
pathogenesis
manner in how a diease develops
infection
invasion/colonization of body by pathogenic microorganisms
disease
an infection that results in any change from a state of health
normal microbiota
organisms that live on us, but don't produce disease under normal cocnditions
origin of normal microbiota
birth canal, eating
normal flora
present, but dissapear
locations of normal microbiota
skin, eyes, nose, mouth, large intestine, urinary tract
factors that determine distribution and comp of normal microbiota
nutrients, physical and chemical factors, defenses of hosts
microbial antagonism
prevent overgrowth of harmful organisms
mutualism
both benefit
commensalism
one benefits, the other is unaffected
parasitism
one benefits at the expense of others
probiotics
live microbial cultures applied to or ingested, exert benefit effect
opportunistic pathogens
don't cause disease in normal environment
synergism
2 things working together, 2 microbes working together to cause diease, ie gingivitis
symptoms
changes in body function, not seen by observer
signs
objective changes
syndrome
specific group of signs or symptoms
communicable disease
spreads indirect or direct
contagious
EASILY spread
noncommunicable
not spread from one host to another
incidence
# of people in a population / time period (see spread of disease)
prevalence
# of people in population / specific time, new & old cases (seriousness and length)
sporadic
occurs occasionally
endemic
constantly present
epidemic
many in short period of time
pandemic
epidemic gone world wide
acute
develops fast, lasts short
chronic
develops slowly, continual, recurrent for long time
subacute
intermediate, between acute and chronic
latent
remains inactive til triggered
herd immunity
many immunne people in a community
local
invading microorganisms, small area
systemic or general
spread throughout body by blood or lymph
focal
systemic, specific area
bacteremia
presence of bacteria in blood
sepsis
toxic inflammatory condition from spread of microbes
toxemia
presence of toxins in blood
viremia
presence of viruses in blood
primary
acute infection that causes initial illness
secondary
caused by opportunistic pathogen
subclinical
no noticeable illness
predisposing factors
makes body more susceptable to disease, may alter course...gender, genetics, climate, nutrition, fatigue, age
incubation
1. initial infection until first appearence of signs and symptoms
prodromal
2. sometimes present, early mild symptoms
illness
3. most severe, death
decline
4. s&s subside, vulnerable to 2nd infections
convalesence
5. regains strength, recovery