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69 Cards in this Set

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The [gameophyte/sporophyte] generation is the dominant generation in the life of an angiosperm.
The sporophyte generation is the dominant generation in the life of an angiosperm.
What are the reproductive organs in flowers?
The stamens and carpals.
What is the reproductive organ found in the male part of angiosperms? The female part?
Male = stamen (staMEN)
Female = carpal
What's the difference between complete and incomplete flowers?
Complete flowers have all of the basic flower parts; incomplete flowers do not.
The anther and the ovule have _________ located inside of them, which is where the gametophytes develop.
The anther and the ovule have SPORANGIA located inside of them, which is where the gametophytes develop.
Pollen Grains (male gametes) develop in the ___________. Embryo Sack (female gametes) develop in the ____________.
Pollen Grains (male gametes) develop in the MICROSPORANGIUM. Embryo Sack (female gametes) develop in the MEGASPORANGIUM.
Order of events: Microsporangium → a microsporocyte → 4 __________ → each ___________ will develop into 1 pollen grain, each housing 2 sperm.
Order of events: Microsporangium → a microsporocyte → 4 MICROSPORES → each MICROSPORE will develop into 1 pollen grain, each housing 2 sperm.
Order of events: Megasporangium → a ___________ → 4 megaspores but only one will survive → embryo sack.
Order of events: Megasporangium → a MEGASPOROCYTE → 4 megaspores but only one will survive → embryo sack.
What occurs in self-incompatibility?
Many flowers will reject pollen from itself (promotes genetic diversity).
What is the goal of all plants in a response?
The goal of all plants in a response is to enhance survival and reproductive success.
What term is used for the reception of stimulus and then a response.
Signal Transduction Pathways
Plant hormones are ________ signals.
Plant hormones are CHEMICAL signals.
Plant hormones are only needed in [small/large] quantities in order to work.
Plant hormones are only needed in small quantities in order to work.
Which class of plant hormones can kill in high quantities?
Auxins
Where are auxins found in plants?
The embryo of seeds; the apical meristems.
Where is cytokinin synthesized?
The roots.
What is the function of gibberellins?
Promotes seed and bud germination, stem elongation, and stimulates flowering & growth of a fruit.
Which class of hormones is similar to animal cholesterol and sex hormones?
Brassinosteroids
Where are brassinosteroids found in the plant?
Seeds, fruits, shoots, leaves, and floral buds.
What do brassinosteroids do?
They inhibit root growth and slow leaf abscission (leaf falling off).
What does abscisic acid do?
Inhibits growth, closes stomata during stress, and promotes seed dormancy.
Where can ethylene be found on a plant?
Tissue of ripening fruit, aging leaves and flowers.
What does ethylene do?
Promotes fruit ripening, opposes auxin, and leaf abscission (falling off of a leaf).
Which class of plant hormone is produced during plant stress and can induce a triple response?
Ethylene gas.
Gravitropism is controlled by statoliths in plant cells. Explain statoliths.
They're specialized plastids inside of each cell that tells the position of the cell.
What is the term for: reacting to being disturbed (wind, touch…)?
Thigmomophism
What is the term for: the attraction to mechanical supports (many vines)?
Thigmotropism
What are the three main uses of roots?
1. Anchorage
2. Storage of goods
3. Absorb nutrients
In the root, where does most absorption occur and why?
At the root tip because there are many root hairs there which increase surface area.
Eudicots have [taproots/fibrous roots]. Monocots have [taproots/fibrous roots].
Eudicots have TAPROOTS. Monocots have FIBROUS ROOTS.
Where do all lateral roots originate from?
The pericycle.
In a monocot root, the Xylem is always found towards the [inside/outside] of the pericycle.
In a monocot root, the Xylem is always found towards the INSIDE of the pericycle.
The stele is the same as the _________ _________.
The stele is the same as the VASCULAR CYLINDER.
The pericycle of an eudicot root is directly on the [inside/outside] of the endodermis.
The pericycle of an eudicot root is directly on the INSIDE of the endodermis.
Branches and leaves originate from what?
Nodes
What term is defined as, "The spaces between leaves on a stem."? (Basically between nodes)
Internodes
Axillary buds have the potential to develop into a ________ ______.
Axillary buds have the potential to develop into a LATERAL SHOOT.
Where can terminal buds be found?
At the very top of the plant stem, and also on the tips of branches.
What term is defined as, "Dominance in which most resources are used at the terminal buds."
Apical dominance
Where do leaves originate from?
The leaf primordia.
In a monocot stem, the vascular bundles are...
- ...organized in a circular path.
- ...spread randomly throughout the ground tissue.
In a monocot stem, the vascular bundles are spread randomly throughout the ground tissue.
Fiber plant cells are also known as...
Fiber plant cells are also known as SCLERENCHYMA CELLS.
Leaves are made of parts known as the blade and stalk. Another name for "stalk" is...
Another name for "stalk" is PETIOLE.
Eudicot leaves are characterized by what feature?
Eudicot leaves are characterized by having multi-branched veins. They are also known as "True trees".
Monocot leaf veins are...
...parallel.
Where is the main site of photosynthesis?
The mesophyll palisade and Spongy tissue.
Which cells protect vascular tissue?
Bundle sheath cells.
Dermal tissue in non-woody plants is known as the ________. In woody plants, it is known as the _________.
Dermal tissue in non-woody plants is known as the EPIDERMIS. In woody plants, it is known as the PERIDERM.
What are the two components of vascular tissue?
Xylem and phloem.
Which ground tissue is found inward and which is found outward: pith, cortex?
The pith is found inward in relation to the cortex, which is found outward the pith.
Sclerenchyma cells are thick secondary cell walls made up of ________.
Sclerenchyma cells are thick secondary cell walls made up of LIGNIN.
Which type of plant cell is the typical plant cell? It is totipotent and most metabolic processes take place in these.
Parenchyma cells.
Which plant cells do you normally associate with celery strands?
Collenchyma cells.
Phloem cells lack __________ and are supported by cells known as _________ _______.
Phloem cells lack ORGANELLES and are supported by cells known as COMPANION CELLS.
Perennials live __________.
Perennials live INDEFINITELY.
Apical meristems are associated with which type of plant growth? Lateral meristems?
Apical meristems are associated with primary growth (upward), and lateral meristems are associated with secondary growth (thickness).
The vascular cambium is the ________ _________ and is only _____ cell layer(s) thick.
The vascular cambium is the LATERAL MERISTEM and is only ONE cell layer thick.
Heart wood are xylem cells that are _________.
Heart wood are xylem cells that are MATURE / DEAD.
Bark is made up of what two things?
Secondary phloem and layers of periderm.
Mosses are examples of what type of plant?
Bryophytes.
Bryophytes lack what?
They lack vascular tissue. They rely on osmosis to move water to the top of the plant.
The loss of water is known as ___________.
The loss of water is known as TRANSPIRATION.
Water will move from an area of ________ water potential to an area of _________ water potential.
Water will move from an area of HIGHER water potential to an area of LOWER water potential.
What's the difference between apoplastic and symplastic transport routes?
Symplastic routes only travel through the plant cells' cytosol, which apoplectic routes only travel through the plant cells' cell walls.
What is defined as, "The movement of fluid driven by pressure only, and usually in large amounts."?
Bulk flow
What term is defined as, "A fungal symbiont used to increase the surface area of a root."?
Mycorrhizae
Why does the apoplectic route lead to a dead end?
Eventually, the substances flowing in the apoplectic route will hit something called the Casparian strip in the endoderm. The Casparian strip is made up of Suberin, a waxy substance.
Negative pressure (caused by transpiration) is the [most power/weakest] force that drives xylem up a plant.
Negative pressure (caused by transpiration) is the MOST POWERFUL force that drives xylem up a plant.
Xerophytic plants are plants that have evolved to live in what kind of conditions?
Dry, arid conditions.