Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/113

Click to flip

113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SPORULATION
THE PROCESS OF SPORE AND ENDOSPORE FORMATION; ALSO CALLED SPOROGENESIS
SMOOTH ER
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM WITHOUT RIBOSOMES
CISTERN
A FLATTENED MEMBRANOUS SAC IN ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND GOLGI COMPLEX
CILIATE
A MEMBER OF THE PROTOZOAN PHYLUM CHILIOPHORA THAT USES CILIA FOR LOCOMOTION
STREPTOCOCCI (SING. STREPTOCOCCUS)
(1) COCCI THAT REMAIN ATTACHED IN CHAINS AFTER CELL DIVISION (2) WRITTEN AS A GENUS, REFERS TO A GRAM-POSITIVE, CATALASE-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
HISTONE
A PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH DNA IN EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY
THE PROPERTY OF A PLASMA MEMBRANE TO ALLOW CERTAIN IONS AND MOLECULES TO MOVE THROUGH THE MEMBRANE WHILE RESTRICTING OTHERS
COCCOBACILLUS (pl. COCCOBACILLI)
A BACTERIUM THAT IS AN OVAL ROD
SPHEROPLAST
A GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIUM TREATED TO DAMAGE THE CELL WALL, RESULTING IN A SPHERICAL CELL
PELLICLE
(1) THE FLEXIBLE COVERING OF SOME PROTOZOA (2) SCUM ON THE SURFACE OF A LIQUID MEDIUM
POLYPEPTIDE
(1) A CHAIN OF AMINO ACIDS (2)A GROUP OF ANTIBIOTICS
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
THE DOUBLE MEMBRANE THAT SEPARATES THE NUCLEUS FROM THE CYTOPLASM IN A EUKARYOTIC CELL
ENDOSPORE
A RESTING STRUCTURE FORMED INSIDE SOME BACTERIA
TRANSPORT VESICLE
MEMBRANE-BOUND SACS THAT MOVE PROTEINS FROM ROUGH ER TO GOLGI COMPLEX
FIMBRIA (pl. FIMBRIAE)
AN APPENDAGE ON A BACTERIAL CELL USED FOR ATTACHMENT
LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE (LPS)
A MOLECULE CONSISTING OF A LIPID AND A POLYSACCHARIDE, FORMING THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF GRAM-NEGATIVE CELL WALLS
PROKARYOTE
A CELL WHOSE GENETIC MATERIAL IS NOT ENCLOSED IN A NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
CAPSULE
AN OUTER, VISCOUS COVERING ON SOME BACTERIA COMPOSED OF A POLYSACCHARIDE OR POLYPEPTIDE
CARBOXYSOME
A PROKARYOTIC INCLUSION CONTAINING RIBULOSE 1,5-DIPHOSPHATE CARBOXYLASE
PORINS
A TYPE OF PROTEIN IN THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF GRAM-NEGATIVE CELL WALLS THAT PERMITS THE PASSAGE OF SMALL MOLECULES
CENTROSOME
REGION IN A EUKARYOTIC CELL CONSISTING OF A PERICENTRIOLAR AREA (PROTEIN FIBERS) AND A PAIR OF CENTRIOLES; INVOLVED IN FORMATION OF THE MITOTIC SPINDLE
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
NET MOVEMENT OF A SUBSTANCE ACROSS A MEMBRANE AGAINST A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT; REQUIRES THE CELL TO EXPEND ENERGY
OSMOTIC LYSIS
RUPTURE OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE RESULTING FROM MOVEMENT OF WATER INTO THE CELL
MOTILITY
THE ABILITY OF AN ORGANISM TO MOVE BY ITSELF
GLYCOCALYX
A GELATINOUS POLYMER SURROUNDING A CELL
SEROVAR
A VARIATION WITHIN A SPECIES; ALSO CALLED SEROTYPE
CHLOROPLAST
THE ORGANELLE THAT PERFORMS PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC EUKARYOTES
SPIRILLUM (pl. SPIRILLA)
(1) A HELICAL OR CORKSCREW-SHAPED BACTERIUM (2) WHEN WRITTEN AS A GENUS, REFERS TO AEROBIC, HELICAL BACTERIA WITH CLUMPS OF POLAR FLAGELLA
RIBOSOME
THE SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN A CELL, COMPOSED OF RNA AND PROTEIN
NUCLEOID
THE REGION IN A BACTERIAL CELL CONTAINING THE CHROMOSOME
PHOTOTAXIS
MOVEMENT IN RESPONSE TO THE PRESENCE OF LIGHT
GAS VACUOLE
A PROKARYOTIC INCLUSION FOR BUOYANCY COMPENSATION
METACHROMATIC GRANULE
A GRANULE THAT STORES INORGANIC PHOSPHATE AND STAINS RED WITH CERTAIN BLUE DYES; CHARACTERISTIC OF CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. COLLECTIVELY KNOWN AS VOLUTIN
STORAGE VESICLE
ORGANELLES THAT FORM FROM THE GOLGI COMPLEX; CONTAIN PROTEINS MADE IN THE ROUGH ER AND PROCESSED IN THE GOLGI COMPLEX
INCLUSION
MATERIAL HELD INSIDE A CELL, OFTEN CONSISTING OF RESERVE DEPOSITS
MICROTUBULE
A HOLLOW TUBE MADE OF THE PROTEIN TUBULIN; THE STRUCTURAL UNIT OF EUKARYOTIC FLAGELLA AND CENTRIOLES
GOLGI COMPLEX
AN ORGANELLE INVOLVED IN THE SECRETION OF CERTAIN PROTEINS
FLAGELLUM (pl. FLAGELLA)
A THIN APPENDAGE FROM THE SURFACE OF A CELL; USED FOR CELLULAR LOCOMOTION; COMPOSED OF FLAGELLIN IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS, COMPOSED OF NINE PAIRS PLUS TWO MICROTUBULES IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS
SECRETORY VESICLE
A MEMBRANE-ENCLOSED SAC PRODUCED BY THE ER; TRANSPORTS SYNTHESIZED MATERIAL INTO CYTOPLASM
HYPOTONIC (HYPOOSMOTIC) SOLUTION
A SOLUTION THAT HAS A LOWER CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTES THAN AN ISOTONIC SOLUTION
PHOSPHOLIPID
A COMPLEX LIPID COMPOSED OF GLYCEROL, TWO FATTY ACIDS AND A PHOSPHATE GROUP
CYTOSOL
THE FLUID PORTION OF CYTOPLASM
PILUS (pl. PILI)
AN APPENDAGE ON A BACTERIAL CELL USED FOR THE TRANSFER OF GENETIC MATERIAL DURING CONJUGATION
LOPHOTRICHOUS
HAVING TWO OR MORE FLAGELLA AT ONE END OF A CELL
MESOSOME
AN IRREGULAR FOLD IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF A PROKARYOTIC CELL THAT IS AN ARTIFACT OF PREPARATION FOR MICROSCOPY
VACUOLE
AN INTRACELLULAR INCLUSION, IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS, SURROUNDED BY A PLASMA MEMBRANE; IN PROKARYOTIC CELLS, SURROUNDED BY PROTEINACEOUS MEMBRANE
THYLAKOID
A CHLOROPHYLL-CONTAINING MEMBRANE IN A CHLOROPLAST. A BACTERIAL THYLAKOID IS ALSO KNOWN AS A CHROMATOPHORE
CENTRIOLE
A STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF NINE MICROTUBULE TRIPLETS, FOUND IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS
STREPTOBACILLI (SING. STREPTOBACILLUS)
RODS THAT REMAIN ATTACHED IN CHAINS AFTER CELL DIVISION
OSMOSIS
THE NET MOVEMENT OF SOLVENT MOLECULES ACROSS A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE FROM AN AREA OF LOWER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF HIGHER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION
CRISTA (pl. CRISTAE)
FOLDING OF THE INNER MEMBRANE OF A MITOCONDRION
ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY
THE MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF EUKARYOTES WHICH STATES THAT ORGANELLES AROSE FROM PROKARYOTIC CELLS LIVING INSIDE A HOST PROKARYOTE
PROTOPLAST
A GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIUM OR PLANT CELL TREATED TO REMOVE THE CELL WALL
STAPHYLOCOCCI (sing. STAPHYLOCOCCUS)
COCCI IN A GRAPELIKE CLUSTER OR BROAD SHEET
BINARY FISSION
PROKARYOTIC CELL REPRODUCTION BY DIVISION INTO TWO DAUGHTER CELLS
ROUGH ER
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM WITH RIBOSOMES ON ITS SURFACE
PINOCYTOSIS
THE ENGULFING OF FLUID BY INFOLDING OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE, IN EUKARYOTES
CHROMATOPHORE
AN INFOLDING OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE WHERE BACTERIOCHLOROPHYLL IS LOCATED IN PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC BACTERIA; ALSO KNOWN AS THYLAKOIDS
MONOTRICHOUS
HAVING A SINGLE FLAGELLUM
PEPTIDOGLYCAN
THE STRUCTURAL MOLECULE OF BACTERIA CELL WALLS CONSISTING OF THE MOLECULES N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE, N-ACETYLMURAMIC ACID, TETRAPEPTIDE SIDE CHAIN, AND PEPTIDE SIDE CHAIN
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
THE MOVEMENT OF A SUBSTANCE ACROSS A PLASMA MEMBRANE FROM AN AREA OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION, MEDIATED BY TRANSPORT PROTEINS
FORESPORE
A STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF CHROMOSOME, CYTOPLASM, AND ENDOSPORE MEMBRANE INSIDE A BACTERIAL WALL
BACILLUS (pl. BACILLI)
(1) ANY ROD-SHAPED BACTERIUM (2) WHEN WRITTEN AS A GENUS (BACILLUS) REFERS TO ROD-SHAPED, ENDOSPORE-FORMING, FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC, GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
EQUILIBRIUM
THE POINT OF EVEN DISTRIBUTION
LYSIS
(1) DESTRUCTION OF A CELL BY THE RUPTURE OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE RESULTING IN A LOSS OF CYTOPLASM (2)IN DISEASE, A GRADUAL PERIOD OF DECLINE
CHROMOSOME
THE STRUCTURE THAT CARIES HEREDITARY INFORMATION, CHROMOSOMES CONTAIN GENES
TEICHOIC ACID
A POLYSACCHARIDE FOUND IN GRAM-POSITIVE CELL WALLS
OSMOTIC PRESSURE
THE FORCE WITH WHICH A SOLVENT MOVES FROM A SOLUTION OF LOWER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION TO A SOLUTION OF HIGHER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION
NUCLEOLUS (pl. NUCLEOLI)
AN AREA IN A EUKARYOTIC NUCLEUS WHERE rRNA IS SYNTHESIZED
PLASMID
A SMALL CIRCULAR DNA MOLECULE THAT REPLICATES INDEPENDENTLY OF THE CHROMOSOME
DIPLOBACILLI (sing. DIPLOBACILLUS)
RODS THAT DIVIDE AND REMAIN ATTACHED IN PAIRS
DIPLOCOCCI (sing. DIPLOCOCUS)
COCCI THAT DIVDE AND REMAIN IN PAIRS
NUCLEAR PORE
AN OPENING IN THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE THROUGH WHICH MATERIALS ENTER AND EXIT THE NUCLEUS
MAGNETOSOME
AN IRON-OXIDE INCLUSION, PRODUCED BY SOME GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA, THAT ACTS LIKE A MAGNET
TAXIS
MOVEMENT IN RESPONSE TO AN ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULUS
HYPERTONIC (HYPEROSMOTIC) SOLUTION
A SOLUTION THAT HAS A HIGHER CONCENTRAION OF SOLUTES THAN AN ISOTONIC SOLUTION
TRANSFER VESICLE
MEMBRANE-BOUND SACS THAT MOVE PROTEINS FROM THE GOLGI COMPLEX TO SPECIFIC AREAS IN THE CELL
TRANSPORTER PROTEIN
A CARRIER PROTEIN IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
ISOTONIC (ISOMOTIC) SOLUTION
A SOLUTION IN WHICH, AFTER IMMERSION OF A CELL, OSMOTIC PRESSURE IS EQUAL ACROSS THE CELL'S MEMBRANE
PERITRICHOUS
HAVING FLAGELLA DISTRIBUTED OVER THE ENTIRE CELL
GROUP TRANSLOCATION
IN PROKARYOTES, ACTIVE TRANSPORT IN WHICH A SUBSTANCE IS CHEMICALLY ALTERED DURING TRANSPORT ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
GERMINATION
THE PROCESS OF STARTING TO GROW FROM A SPORE OR ENDOSPORE
CYTOSKELETON
MICROFILAMENTS, INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS, AND MICROTUBULES THAT PROVIDE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT FOR EUKARYOTIC CYTOPLASM
ORGANELLE
A MEMBRANE-ENCLOSED STRUCTURE WITHIN EUKARYOTIC CELLS
AXIAL FILAMENT
A STRUCTURE FOR MOTILITY FOUND IN SPIROCHETES; ALSO CALLED ENDOFLAGELLUM
SPIROCHETE
A CORKSCREW-SHAPED BACTRIUM WITH AXIAL FILAMENTS
MITOCHONDRION (pl. MITOCHONDRIA)
AN ORGANELLE CONTAINING KREBS CYCLE ENZYMES AND THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
COCCUS (pl. COCCI)
A SPHERICAL OR OVOID BACTERIUM
SARCINA (pl. SARCINAE)
(1)A GROUP OF EIGHT BACTERIA THAT REMAIN IN A PACKET AFTER DIVIDING (2)WHEN WRITTEN AS A GENUS, REFERS TO A GRAM-POSITIVE, ANAEROBIC COCCI
L FORM
PROKARYOTIC CELLS THAT LACK A CELL WALL; CAN RETURN TO WALLED STATE
PLASMA (CYTOPLASMIC) MEMBRANE
THE SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE ENCLOSING THE CYTOPLASM OF A CELL; THE OUTER LAYER IN ANIMAL CELLS, INTERNAL TO THE CELL WALL IN OTHER ORGANISMS
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
A MEMBRANOUS NETWORK IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS CONNECTING THE PLASMA MEMBRANE WITH THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE
TETRAD
A GROUP OF FOUR COCCI
CELL WALL
THE OUTER COVERING OF MOST BACTERIA, FUNGAL, ALGAL, AND PLANT CELLS; IN BACTERIA, IT CONSISTS OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
NUCLEUS
(1) THE PART OF AN ATOM CONSISTING OF THE PROTONS AND NEUTRONS (2) THE PART OF A EUKARYOTIC CELL THAT CONTAINS THE GENETIC MATERIAL
VIBRIO
(1) A CURVED OR COMMA SHAPED BACTERIUM (2) WHEN WRITTEN AS A GENUS, A GRAM-NEGATIVE, MOTILE, FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC CURVED ROD
PEROXISOME
ORGANELLE THAT OXIDIZES AMINO ACIDS, FATTY ACIDS AND ALCOHOL
AMPHITRICHOUS
HAVING TUFTS OF FLAGELLA AT BOTH ENDS OF A CELL
LYSOSOME
AN ORGANELLE CONTAINING DIGESTIVE ENZYMES
TURNOVER NUMBER
A NUMBER OF SUBSTRATE MOLECULES ACTED ON PER ENZYME MOLECULE PER SECOND
CHROMATIN
X
CYTOPLASM
IN A PROKARYOTIC CELL, EVERYTHING INSIDE THE PLASMA MEMBRANE; IN A EUKARYOTIC CELL, EVERYTHING INSIDE THE PLASMA MEMBRANE AND EXTERNAL TO THE NUCLEUS
CHEMOTAXIS
MOVEMENT IN RESPONSE TO THE PRESENCE OF A CHEMICAL
VOLUTIN
STORED INORGANIC PHOSPHATE IN A PROKARYOTIC CELL
FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
A WAY OF DESCRIBING THE DYNAMIC ARRANGEMENT OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND PROTEINS COMPRISING THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
PERIPLASM
THE REGION OF A GRAM-NEGATIVE CELL WALL BETWEEN THE OUTER MEMBRANE AND THE CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE
ENDOCYTOSIS
THE PROCESS BY WHICH MATERIAL IS MOVED INTO A EUKARYOTIC CELL
SIMPLE DIFFUSION
THE NET MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES OR IONS FROM AN AREA OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION
EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDE (EPS)
A GLYCOCALYX, COMPOSED OF SUGARS, THAT PERMITS BACTERIA TO ATTACH TO VARIOUS SURFACES
PLEOMORPHIC
HAVING MANY SHAPED, CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN BACTERIA
CILLIUM (pl. CILLIA)
A RELATIVELY SHORT CELLULAR PROJECTION FROM SOME EUKARYOTIC CELLS, COMPOSED OF NINE PAIRS AND TWO MICROTUBULES
SLIME LAYER
A GLYCOCALYX THAT IS UNORGANIZED AND LOOSELY ATTACHED TO A CELL WALL
INCLUSION BODY
A GRANULE OR VIRAL PARTICLE IN THE CYTOPLASM OR NUCLEUS OR SOME INFECTED CELLS; IMPORTANT IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF VIRUSES THAT CAUSE INFECTION