• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/65

Click to flip

65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mucous membranes are a part of
innate defense
According to the animation, B cells interact directly with
helper T-cells
Which of the following defense systems would be involved in fighting a viral pathogen?
T lymphocytes
According to the animation, antibodies interact with which innate defenses?
phagocytes and the complement system
Which cells directly attack abnormal cells in the body?
cytotoxic T cells
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen of humans. After being ingested by a macrophage, it prevents formation of the ___________ by preventing fusion of the phagosome with the ___________________.
phagolysosome, lysosome
In which intracellular compartment would you expect most of the digestive enzymes involved in pathogen destruction to be found?
lysosome
In macrophages and dendritic cells (so-called antigen-presenting cells) some small parts of the phagocytosed particle are presented to other cells of the immune system. If you were to draw an arrow leading to "antigen presentation" as described above, from which word would it extend?
digestion
If one is examining a blood smear from a patient with a parasitic worm infection, which of the following leukocytes would be found in increased numbers (as opposed to a blood smear from a normal patient NOT infected with worms)?
eosinophiles
Which of the complement pathways employs properdin?
alternative pathway
In the classical pathway, which of the following directly activates cellular responses?
C3a, C5a, and C5bC6C7
Antibodies from cellular immune responses are used in
classical pathway
Which of the complement pathways was discovered first?
classical pathway
Which of the following are functions of lectins?
They act as opsonins for phagocytosis, they attach to carbohydrates on some bacterial and viral surfaces, and they activate C2 and C4.
How does cytolysis occur via the complement pathway?
formation of MAC in invading cells, killing them
Which complement protein is used as an opsonin?
C3b
If a person lacked the ability to form C5, what result of complement could not occur?
cytolysis
If a person could not form C2, which result of complement would be affected?
Cytolysis, chemotaxis, inflammation, and opsonization
What complement result involves the use of phagocytes?
chemotaxis and opsonization
Which of the following is an event that ultimately results in activation of complement C3 by splitting it into C3a and C3b?
interaction of mannose-binding lectin with mannose molecules on a bacterium
Which of the following are best described as short chains of amino acids that are very stable and can have a variety of different antimicrobial activities, such as forming pores in bacterial plasma membranes and inhibiting cell wall synthesis?
antimicrobial peptides
______________ is/are always present in an individual's blood. However, in the absence of infection, it is in an inactive form.
kinins
You note that the body temperature of one of your patients is starting to increase. As a result, you can infer that all of the following may be occurring in this patient EXCEPT __________.
dilation of blood vessels
Which statement regarding the lymphatic system is true?
Lymphatic capillaries possess one-way valves. These valves permit the uptake of fluid from the body but do not allow the fluid to flow back out of the capillaries into the intracellular spaces.
A response that is uniquely directed against pathogenic Bordetella pertussis would involve what component?
antibodies
First line defenses have what aspect in common with each other?
They are physical barriers against invading pathogens
Both the innate and adaptive defenses of the immune system work to prevent
the penetration and colonization by pathogens, and the diseases they cause.
If a new bacterial pathogen entered a human body through an accidental needle stick, the first cell that would try to kill the pathogen would likely be
a phagocyte
Which non-specific defense mechanism is mismatched with its associated body structure or body fluid?
mucociliary escalator intestines
Lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin have similar mechanisms of action in that they both cause damage to the bacterial
cell wall
All of the following pertain to fever EXCEPT that it
accelerates microbial growth by increasing iron absorption from the digestive tract
All of the following are true regarding NK cells EXCEPT
they destroy infected body cells by phagocytosis.
Activation of C5–C9 results in
lysis of microbial cells
What cellular macromolecules make up the complement pathway?
proteins
Based on the animation, which of the following is cleaved by C1?
C2 and C4
Where are the complement proteins found in the body?
the blood serum
Based on the animation, which of the following is responsible for cleaving C3?
C2aC4b
Based on the animation, which of the complement proteins can directly bind to the surface of a bacterial cell?
C3b
Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is FALSE?
C3 is not involved in the classical pathway
All of the following are components of the inflammatory process EXCEPT
antibody synthesis
The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by
mannose on the surface of microbes
All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?
vasodilation
Innate immunity includes all of the following EXCEPT
production of antibody
The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by
antigen-antibody reactions
The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by
lipid-CHO complexes and C3
All of the following are part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons EXCEPT
they are effective for long periods
All of the following are effects of histamine EXCEPT
production of antibodies
Phagocytes utilize all of the following to optimize interaction with microorganisms EXCEPT
lysozyme
Each of the following provides protection from phagocytic digestion EXCEPT
formation of phagolysosomes
Normal microbiota provide protection from infection in each of the following ways EXCEPT
they produce lysozyme
Each of the following is an effect of complement activation EXCEPT
a.increased phagocytic activity.
b. bacterial cell lysis.
c. opsonization.
d. interference with viral replication.
e. increased blood vessel permeability.
interference with viral replication
A child falls and suffers a deep cut on her leg. The cut went through her skin and she is bleeding. Which of the following defense mechanisms will participate in eliminating contaminating microbes?
phagocytosis in the inflammatory response
The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
trap inhaled dust and microorganisms in mucous and propel it away from the lower respiratory tract.
All of the following protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection EXCEPT
HCl
Innate immunity
is nonspecific and present at birth
Which of the following statements about beta interferon is true?
It acts as a signal that induces uninfected cells to produce antiviral proteins.
Which of the following statements about innate immunity is true?
innate immunity is present at birth
An inflammatory response would result from which of the following?
jellyfish sting
If a person turns their ankle, how would one determine if damage to the tissue in the ankle has occurred?
the ankle is red, swollen, and warm to the touch
What is the function of inflammation in response to a burn from a hot iron?
to repair the damages tissue
3 parts of the complement system
1. inflammation
2. opsonization
3. cytolysis
alternative pathway
activated by contact b/w complement protein and pathogen
interferons
alpha=leukocytes
beta=fibroblasts
gamma=NK cells(immune regulation)
Humoral Immunity
produced by B-cells
* recognize antigens by the antibodies on the cell surface
*mature in bone marrow
* due to antibodies
cell mediated immunity
produced by T-helper cells
recognize antigens by TCR's on surface
mature in thymus
Due to T-cells