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153 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
opportunistic fungal pathogen of upper respiratory tract
Pneumocystis carinii
histoplasmosis
dimorphic/monomorphic
dimorphic
causes blindness
Chlamydia trachomatis
3 kinds of contact
direct,indirect, droplet
pasteurization
mild heating to kill most pathogens without affecting taste
yeast normal flora, opportunistic pathogen
Candida albicans
world wide epidemic
pandemic
disease spread by louse
typhus
fungal causes desert fever
Coccidioides
sterilize heat sensitive items
ethylene oxide
spread by airborne particles
histoplasmosis
antibiotic inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol
penicillin is not selectively toxic against
mycoplasma
epidemic typhus is spread by
lice
rickettsia rickettsii causes
rocky mtn spotted fever
prokaryotes found in soil and produce antibiotics
streptomyces
disease caused by chlamydia
pneumonia, parrot fever/psittacocis, trachoma
disease caused by mycoplasma
pleuropneumonia, PAP, walking pneumonia
disease caused by histoplasma
histoplasmosis
diease caused by coccidioides
desert fever, histoplasmosis
3 kinds of contact
direct/person to person, indirect/fomite, droplet/sneezing or coughing
3 characteristics that distinguish fungi from bacteria
eukaryotes, chitin in cell wall, endospores
blindness caused by
Chlamydia trachomatis
bacteria which produce exotoxins
Corynebacterium diptheriae
fungal causes desert fever
Coccidioides
opportunistic pathogen
Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii
sterilizes heat sensitive items
ethylene oxide
disease spread by airborne particles
coccidioidomycoses (all fungal), viruses, TB
gene for diptheria toxin encoded by a
prophage
Rickettsia are
bacteria
world wide epidemics
pandemics
prokaryote in soil produces antibiotics
Streptomyces
bacteriostatic
prevents or inhibits bacterial growth
bacteriocidal
kills bacteria
resistance is spread by
antibiotic use, mutations, plasmids
pathogen that produces hemolysin
Streptococcus pyogenes
exotoxin
gm+ bacteria, gene carried on plasmid or phage, secreted by bacterium or released following lysis
endotoxin
gm- bacteria, part of outer membrane, lipopolysaccharides, released when cell dies or undergoes lysis
complications with antibiotic use
toxicity, allergy, normal flora destruction
endemic
disease that is always present in population
epidemic
large # of people affected in a short time
chemotherapy
Use of chemical substances to treat disease
mycoplasma shape
pleomorphic (b/c no cell wall)
mycoplasma grow
in serum media
Mycoplasma hominis causes
NGU, PID
Ureaplasma urealyticum causes
NGU, infertility
Rickettsia size
pleomorphic rods
rickettsia grows
obligate intracellular parasites, no ATP gen system, enter via endocytosis
rickettsia treated with
chloramphenicol, tetracycline
Rickettisa rickettsii causes
rocky mtn spotted fever
Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted by
ticks
Rickettsia prowazekii causes
epidemic typhus
Rickettsia prowazekii spread by
lice
Rickettsia typhi causes
endemic typhus
Rickettsia typhi spread by
rats, fleas
Rochalimea henseleae, Bartonella henselae causes
cat scratch fever
Chlamydia shape
cocci
Chlamydia lives
obligate intracellular parasites, grown in vertebrate hosts
Chlamydia transmitted
host to host, no vector
Chlamydia treated with
tetracyclines
Chlamydia psittaci causes
psittacosis/parrot fever, resp infections
Chlamydia psittaci spread
air, dust, fecal
Chlamydia trachomatis causes
chlamydia/STD, trachoma, NGU, lymphogranuloma venereum
Chlamydia pneumoniae causes
mild pneumonia, bronchitis
mold-Rhizopus nigricans dispersal
sporangiophores, sporangium, sporangiospores
mold-Rhizopus nigricans hyphae
coenocytic, no walls
mold-Aspergillus niger dispersal
condidiospores, condidiophore
mold-Aspergillus niger hyphae
septate
mold-Penicillin notatum dispersal
condidiospores, condidiophores
mold-Penicillin notatum hyphae
septate
mold-penicillin roqueforti
blue cheese mold
mold-Aspergillus flavis produces
aflatoxin/carcinogenic
yeasts-cells
single
yeasts reproduce
budding
example of yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
mushrooms genus
Basidiomyces
filamentous bacteria from soil
Actinomycetes
filamentous bacteria genus
Streptomyces
systemic mycoses
Histoplasma, Coccidiodes, Cryptococcus
fungus-Histoplasma capsulatum shape
dimorphic, hyphae outside, yeast inside
fungus-Coccidioides immitis shape
dimorphic
fungal-Cryptococcus neoformans shape
monomorphic, yeast
fungal-Cryptococcus neoformans causes
cryptococcus, lung infection
fungal-Pneumocystis carinii grows
as yeast
opportunistic fungal-Pneumocystis carinii causes
PCP, pneumocystis pneumonia, HIV pts
opportunistic fungal-Candida albicans grows
dimorphic
opportunistic fungal-Candida albicans causes
thrush, yeast infections/vaginitis, intestinal infections, eye infections
Sterilization
complete killing
HTST destroys
yeasts, molds, bacteria
dessication kills/doesnt kill
HIV, N gonorrhea/endospores, mycobacterium, mold spores
disinfectants
kill most pathogens on inanimate objects/bacteriocidal, lysol, bleach, alcohol, phenol
antiseptics
disinfectants that can be applied to skin, bacteriocidal, phenol, alcohol, H2O2, iodine
phenolics are
antiseptics, stronger are disinfectants
heavy metals
denature proteins, inactivate enzymes, AgNO3, Hg
Ethylene oxide kills
bacteria and fungi
formaldehyde kills
most bacteria, used as disinfectant, possible carcinogen
salvarsan
selective toxicity, cured syphillis (Treponema pallidum), magic bullet
antibiotics produced by
bacteria and fungus
antibiotics target cell wall
bacitracin, vancomycin, cephalosporins
antibiotics target protein synthesis
chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline
antibiotics target cytoplasmic membrane
polymixin B
antibiotics target DNA replication
quinolones
antibiotic Streptomycin inhibits
protein synthesis
Streptomycin binds to
prokaryotic ribosomes
vancomycin active against
gm+ bacteria, S. aureus, inhibits cell wall synthesis
polymixin B looks like
soap, integrates into cell wall and disrupts it, can be used against fungi/no peptidoglycan
quinolones inhibit
bacterial DNA gyrase, used against nosocomial infections
fluconazole inhibits
p450 enzyme, alters membrane, growth disrupted
fluconazole effective against
Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, broad spectrum
antiviral drugs inhibit
viral replication
antiviral drug example
AZT-analog of thymidine, inhibits reverse transcriptase
AZT is
antimetabolite, selectively toxic for virus only
Acyclovir inhibits
viral replication, incorporates into viral DNA, binds to and inhibits DNA polymerase, treats herpes 1 2
Rifampicin inactivates
bacterial RNA polymerase, Streptomyces, TB and leprosy
Novobiocin inhibits
DNA gyrase, treats Staphylococcus
Antimetabolites functions
competitive inhibition of enzymes, incorporate into molecules
mutualism
both benefit
commensalism
1 benefits, other neither harmed or benefits
parasitism
1 benefits, other harmed
contamination
microorgs present
infection
colonization of host organism by foreign species (bacteria, fungi, virus)
disease
condition where normal function cant be performed, discomfort and distress
reservoir
source for microorgs, food, body, soil, water
pathogen
organism capable of causing disease
pathogenicity
capacity to cause disease
virulence
degree of pathogenicity
nosocomial infections causes
compromised hosts, microorgs in hospital, chain of transmission
skin bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Candida albicans
upper resp tract bacteria
Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis
opportunistic pathogens
Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii
bacteria in mouth
pathogenic-Streptococcus mutans/tooth decay
opportunistic-Candida albicans/thrush
bacteria in intestine
E. coli/nonpathogenic, Shigella, Salmonella, Camphylobacter, Colioforms/pathogenic, Hep A, Rotaviruses/viruses
bacteria in urogenital tract
opportunistic-Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis
infectious disease
communicable
degenerative disease
condition gets progressively worse
neoplastic disease
tumors, benign or malignant
nurtitional deficiency
scurvy, beriberi
idiopathic disease
cause unknown/scoliosis
pathology
study of disease
vehicles for disease transmission
food, water, blood soil
foodborne diease
Shigellosis, Salmonellosis
waterborne disease
cholera
blood or food disease
hepatitis
Airborn transmission
dust, droplet nuclei, > 1 meter
airborn diseases
M TB, all fungi/spores, viruses
mechanical vectors
flies
biological vectors
ticks, lice
sporadic
small # of isolated cases
secrete exotoxins
Corynebacterium diptheriae, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium tetani
hemolysin
lysese rbc's, Streptococcus pyogenes
leukocidins
kills wbc's, Staphylococcus, M TB
Hyaluronidase
increase tissue perm. Clostridium, Streptococcus
coagulase
produced by S. aureus, on surface of bacteria, forms fibrin, resists phagocytosis