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86 Cards in this Set

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Bacteriostatic
Inhibits growth
Local infection
in small area of body
Diptheria toxin
Inhibits protein synthesis
Sepsis vs Asepsis
Bacterial contamination vs. free pathogens
Antisepsis
Destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue.
sterilization
destruction of all forms of microbial life.
Lecithinase
Destroys lecithin

which causes destruction of cytoplasmic membrane and lysis of cells.
Hyaluronidase
enzyme that digests hyaluronic acid which is the glue that holds cells together to make tissue in the human body. If this substance is digested, pathogen can spread rapidly through tissue.
Requirements for infection
Adherance
Multiplying
Colonization
Virulence Factors
capsules
slime layers
fimbrae
viral spikes
envelopes
Exponential Phase
If organism reaches this, growth of organism will be so fast that the host will not be able to keep up with the infection.
Refridgeration
Has bacteriostatic effect
Radiation Destruction of DNA
Ionizing-gamma rays and high energy elecron beam

Non ionizing-produced by electric currents passing through special lamps
Biguanides
used in surgical hand scrubs

binds strongly to skin
low toxicity

vegetative cell and viruses with envelopes.
Halogens
Iodine and chloride

Bacteria, spores, fungi, viruses

Chlorine active in water as it forms hypochlorus acid.

10% solution in contact with organisms kill most.
Chemoautotrophs
Energy: Inorganic compounds

Source: few bacteria
Lag phase
cells increase in size

no cell division

increase in metabolic activity

synthesis of cell components
Tetanus Toxin
Inhibits release of inhibitory transmitters causin spastic paralysis.
Syndrome
specific groups of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease.
Mutualism
Both organsims benefit
Parasitism
One oranism benefits at the expense of the other.
Dergerming
Removing of microbes from a site.
Sanitation
Lowers microbial counts on eating utensils to safe public levels.
Bacteriocidal
Kills organisms.
M Tuberculosis
Grows slowly and takes months to treat.
Microaerophiles
Oxygen required in low concentrations
Photohetertrophs
Energy source: light
Carbon source: organic
Photoautotroph
Energy source: light
Carbon souce: C02
In absence of C02 certain organisms die:
Neisseria and Campylobacter
Faculative anaerobes
can live in presence or absence of oxygen.
Organisms that produce SOD
are capable of living in 02
The pH that most bacteria grow in
near neutrality
Acidic
Fungi and molds prefer this
Stationary Phase
accumulation of waste producs

Exhaustion of nutrients

decreased growth rate

some cells are dying and some growing
Infectivity
Ability of an organism to establish a focal point of infection.
Invasivnes
Ability of a pathogen to spread to adjacent or other tissues.
Lethal Dose 50
Infective Dose 50

ID 50
How much is needed to kill 50% of the population
Toxigenicity
Pathogens ability to produce toxins
Death Phase
Numbers of dying exceeds number of new cells formed
Thermal Death Time
Amount of time needed for all microbes in a liquid culture to be killed at a given temperature.
Sign
A change in the body that can be measured or observed as a result of a disease.
Symptom
A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of a disease.
Koch's Postulates
Used to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
Microbial antagonism
Competition between microbes
Normal microbiota protect host by:
occupying niches that pathogens might occupy.

producing acids

producing bacteriocins
Commensulism
One organism is benefited and the other is unaffected.
Disease
An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally.
Stomach
has a low microbial count due to acid.
Latent disease
Disease with a period of no symptoms.
Opportunistic pathogens
Microbes that cause disease usually only in immunocompromised individuals.
Filtration
Removes organisms
Obligate Anaerobes
Die in the presence of oxygen.
Canophiles
Organisms that grow better in an environment of higher Co2.
Generation time
the time required for a cell to divide and it's population to double.
Chemotrophs
Energy source: Organic compounds
Carbon source: Most bacteria
Pandemic
Worldwide epidemic
Epidemic
Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time.
Endemic
Disease constantly present in a population.
Sporadic disease
Disease that occurs occasionally in a population.
Prevelence
Fraction of the population having a specific disease at a given time.
Secondary infection
Opportunistic infection after a primary infection.
Primary Infection
Acute infection that causes the initial illness.
Viremia
Viruses in blood.
Toxcemia
Toxins in the blood.
Hypochlorus Acid
Very effective against microbial cells including acid fast bacteria & viruses.

Released in water from chlorine gas, sodium or calcium hypochlorite and cyanuric acids.

Used to disinfect swimming pools and drinking water.
Formaldehyde
gaseous disinfectant ...by heating solution in air
Transient
Bacteria may be present for days, weeks, months, sometimes no problems are caused.
Symbiosis
Relationship between normal microbiotsa and the host.
Pathology
Study of disease.
Etiology
Study of the cause of disease.
Pathogenisis
Development of a disease.
Bacteremia
Bacteria in the blood
Septicemia
Growth of bacteria in the blood.
Subclinical Disease
No noticable signs or symptoms.
Bacteriocidal
kills bacteria
Focal Infection
Systemic that begins with local.
Systemic Infection
Infection throughout the body.
Acute disease
Symptoms are rapid.
Chronic disease
Develops slowly.
Herd immunity
Most of population immune
Most bacteria grow at
37 degrees
Thermophiles
45-80 C
Mesophiles
20-50 C
Rapid growth of bacteria
20-50 C
Disinfection
Destruction of vegetative pathogens
Osmotic pressure
organisms live in aqueous environment
addition of salts & sugars food preservatives by causing loss of water and leads to plasolysis.

Halophiles-tolerate up to 15% salt environment.