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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three types of surface components used by pathogens to avoid phagocytosis?
membrane-bound proteins
slimy polysaccharide capsules
How do certain surface components prevent phagocytosis?
prevent deposition of antibodies and complement on surface
Give an example of a pathogen that uses an extensive polysaccharide capsule to avoid phagocytosis.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Describe the Streptococcus pneumoniae morphology
Gram-positive cocci

usually diplococci, but sometimes occur singly or in small chains
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a transient member of the normal flora (T/F)
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the ___ of ___% of healthy adults.
Nasopharynx. 40%.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is very sensitive to what?
heat, cold, drying
Describe Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission
close contact via respiratory droplets
What are the major virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae?
anti-phagocytic capsule
several adhesins
lipoteichoic acid (LTA)
What does pneumolysin do?
binds to cholesterol in the host cell membrane and disrupts it by forming pores
The major clinical symptoms associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae are...
pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, otitis media (ear infection)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen (T/F)
Name two groups at increased risk to develop disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae
smokers and drinkers
What are the two forms of pneumococcal pneumonia?
Bronchial pneumonia is most prevalent in...
infancts, young children, and elderly
Lobar pneumonia more prevelent in...
young adults
How does pneumotoxin function during infection?
- facilitates colonization by damaging host mucosal cells
- induces local inflammatory response
What causes meningitis?
When Streptococcus pneumoniae from bloodstream attach to membranes that cover brain
What happens when Streptococcus pneumoniae lyse in the lung?
pneumotoxin is released, damaging the host mucosal cells, which impairs host ability to clear bacteria caught in mucous
What is the min criteria for Streptococcus pneumoniae identification?
Gram-positive staining, hemolytic activity, and bile sensitivity in a sample from sputum, blood or cerebrospinal fluid
On blood agar in aerobic conditions, Streptococcus pneumoniae causes ___ hemolysis
alpha (partial hemolysis from reduction of hemoglobin)
On blood agar in anaerobic conditions, Streptococcus pneumoniae causes ___ hemolysis
beta (complete lysis)
The Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule by itself is toxic (T/F)
___ different types of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule have been identified
An antibody response to Streptococcus pneumoniae cannot be induced (T/F)
How is the capsular type of Streptococcus pneumoniae determined? What is the name given to the reaction occuring in a positive result?
sample of bacterial colony mixed with specific monoclonal antibody. Quellung reaction
Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants lacking capsule are pathogenic (T/F)
What part of complement is responsible for opsonization?
What is the current Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine?
purified capsular polysaccharide antigens from 23 types of Streptococcus pneumoniae