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67 Cards in this Set

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Group
Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals to meet certain needs.
Team
A group whose members work intensely with one another to achieve a specific common goal or objective.
Synergy
Performance gains that result when individuals and departments coordinate their actinos.
Formal Group
A group that managers establish to achieve organizational goals.
Informal Group
A group that managers or non-managerial employes employees form to help achieve their own goals or meet their own needs.
Task Force (hoc committee)
A committee of managers or nom-managerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem.
Self-Managed work team
A group of employees who supervise their own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide.
Virtual Team
A team whose members rarely or never meet face-to-face but, rather, interact by using various forms of information technology such as e-mail, computer networks, telephone, fax, and videoconferences.
Group Role
A set of behaviors and tasks that a member of a group is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group.
Division of Labor
Splitting the work to be performed into particular tasks and assigning tasks to individual workers.
Group Norms
Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow.
Group Cohesiveness
The degree to which members are attracted to or loyal to their group.
Social Loafing
The tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they work in groups than when they work alone.
HRM
Activities that managers engage in to attract and retain employees and to ensure that they perform at a high level and contribute to the accomplishment of organizational goals.
Strategic Human Resource Management
The process by which managers design the components of an HRM system to be consistent with each other, with other elements of organizational architecture, and with the organization's strategy and goals.
Equal Employment Opportunity
The equal right of all citizens to the opportunity to obtain employment regardless of their gender, age, race, country of origin, religion, or disabilities.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment decisions and requires that employers make accommodations for such workers to enable them to perform their jobs.
Civil Rights Act
Prohibits discrimination (as does Title VII) and allows for the awarding of punitive and compensatory damages, in addition to back pay, in cases of intentional discrimination.
Family and Medical Leave Act
Requires that employers provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave for medical and family reasons including paternity and illness of a family member.
Recruitment
Activities that managers engage in to develop a pool of qualified candidates for open positions.
Selection
The process that managers use to determine the relative qualifications of job applicants and their potential for performing well in a particular job.
Job Analysis
Indentifying the tasks, duties, and responsibilities that make up a job and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job.
Reliability
The degree to which a tool or test measures the same thing each time it is used.
Validity
The degree to which a tool or test measures what it purports to measure.
Training
Teaching organizational members how to perform their current jobs and helping them acquire the knowledge and skills they need to be effective performers.
Development
Building the knowledge and skills of organizational members so that they are prepared to take on new responsibilities and challenges.
On-the-job training
Training that takes place in the work setting as employees perform their job tasks.
Performance Appraisal
The evaluation of employees' job performance and contributions to their organizations.
Performance Feedback
The process through which managers share performance appraisal information with subordinates, give subordinates an opportunity to reflect on their own performance, and develop, with subordinates, plans for the future.
360-degree Appraisal
A performance appraisal be peers, subordinates, superiors, and sometimes clients who are in a position to evaluate a manager's performance.
Formal Appraisal
An appraisal conducted at a set time during the year and based on performance dimensions and measures that were specified in advance.
Informal Appraisal
An unscheduled appraisal of ongoing progress and areas for improvements.
Pay Structure
The arrangement of jobs into categories reflecting their relative importance to the organization and its goals, levels of skill required, and other characteristics.
Labor Relations
The activities that managers engage in to ensure that they have effective working relationships with the labor unions that represent their employees' interests.
Collective Bargaining
Negotiations between labor unioins and managers to resolve conflicts and disputes about issues such as working hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and job security.
Data
Raw, unsummarized, and unanalyzed facts.
Information
Data that are organized in a meaningful fashion.
Information System
A system for acquiring, organizing, storing, manipulating, and transmitting information.
Management Information System
An information system that managers plan and design to provide themselves with the specific information they need.
Information Technology
The means by which information is acquired, organized, stored, manipulated, and transmitted.
Communication
The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding.
Sender
The person or group wishing to share information
Message
The information that a sender wants to share.
Encoding
Translating a message into understandable symbols or language.
Noise
Anything that hampers any stage of the communication process.
Receiver
The person o group for which a message is intended.
Medium
The pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiver.
Decoding
Interpreting and trying to make sense of a message.
Verbal Communication
The encoding of messages into words, either written or spoken.
Nonverbal Communication
The encoding of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress.
Information Richness
The amount of information that a communication medium can carry and the extent to which the medium enables the sender and receiver to reach a common understanding.
Management by wandering around
A face-to-face communication technique in which a manager walks around a work area and talks informally with employees about issues and concerns.
Networking
The exchange of information through a group or network of interlinked computers.
Operating System Software
Software that tells computer hardware how to run.
Applications Software
Software designed for a specific task or use.
Information Distortion
Changes in meaning that occur as information passes through a series of senders and receivers.
Transaction processing system
A management information system designed to handle large volumes of routine, recurring transactions.
Operations Informations system
A management information system that gathers, organizes, and summarizes comprehensive data in a form that managers can use in their non-routine coordinating, controlling, and decision-making tasks.
Decision Support System
An interactive computer-based management information system with model-building capability that managers can use when they must make non-routine decisions.
Production System
The system that an organization uses to acquire inputs, convert the inputs into outputs, and dispose of the outputs.
Operations Manager
A manager who is responsible for managing an organization's production system and for determining where operating improvements might be made.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
A technique that uses IT to develop an ongoing relationship with customers to maximize the value an organization can deliver to them over time.
Facilities Layout
The operations management technique whose goal is to design the machine-worker interface to increase production system efficiency.
Flexible Manufacturing
Operations management techniques that attempt to reduce the setup costs associated with a production system.
Inventory
The stock of raw materials, inputs, and component parts that an organization has on hand at a particular time.
Just-in-time inventory system
A system in which parts or supplies arrive at an organization when they are needed, not before.
Process Reengineering
The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance such as cost, quality, service, and speed.