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20 Cards in this Set

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What are the three main ideas pertaining to Individuality?
Pluralism (There are Many Individuals)
Monoism (There is One Individual)
Nihilism (There are No Individuals)
What is Aristotle's definition of an Individual?
A thing is an individual iff it could exist, at least for a moemnt, even if nothing external to it existed.
What are Pluralities? Give examples.
Things made of two or more things collectively. Examples : The 185 coins in this handful of coins, the copper atoms that constitute this copper statue.
What are "Stuffs"? Give examples.
Portions of matter. Examples : The sugar spilled on this table, the copper that composes this copper statue.
What are Events? Give examples.
Events are occurances, or happenings. Examples : The sneeze we just heard, the Second World War.
What are Universals? Give Examples.
Universals are things that have or could have multiple instances (exemplifications). Examples : Kinds (natural & artificial, such as dog and table), qualities such as colors and shapes, relations such as being older or younger than.
What are Modifications? Give examples.
Modifications are things that exist as a logical consequence of the nonmereological modification of another thing. Examples : Fist, Wrinkle, Smile.
What is Conjunctivism
The idea that for every set of individuals, there is an individual, a "conjuction" that is composed of all and only the members of that set. ** If the conjunction is not an individual of some other sort as well (such as a house), then the individual is a "mere conjunction".
What was Plato's theory about Universals (such as 'Red')
Plato : Red is an abstract individual. It is invisisble and is not located in space. Red would continue to exist even if there ceased to be individuals colored red.
What was Aristotle's theory about Universals (such as 'Red')
Aristotle : Red is a MULTIPLY LOCATED entity. It is WHOLY present in EACH of the individuals instantiating it. It is not an individual, it does not exist apart from red individuals. If there were no red individuals, then red would cease to exist.
What is Trope Theory?
The theory that there is no one entity present (wholly or partly) in each red individual. Red is not an individual; it is a group of resembling "tropes". Red is a property but not a universal. The patch of color on the surface of one apple is a trope, the patch of color on another apple is another resembling trope.
What is the theory on universals called "Nominalism"?
There are no universals, no tropes, no properties. There are red individuals, that can all correctly be described by the word "red", but there is no entity present in a red individual (not even a trope) that MAKES it red.
What is the Substratum Theory?
John Locke's theoyr that an individual has properties, and a "substratum" in which the properties inhere.
What is the "Bundle" Theory?
David Hume's theory that an individual is merely a collocation of properties.
What is Monism?
The idea that there is only one individual.
What is Spinoza's version of Monism?
Those things that we ordinarily think of as indivuduals (such as Fred, Lisa, and Cavanaugh Hall) do exist, and do differ from one another, but are merely different modifications ("modes") of the one real individual.
What is Bradley's version of Monism?
Those things that we ordinarily think of as individuals don't exist at all, not even as modifications of the one real individual. They are merely illusions (reflections).
What is the Hindu version of Monism?
Those things that we ordinarily think of as individuals do exist, but DO NOT DIFFER from one another. They are all the same one individual.
What is Mereological Change?
The adding or substracting of parts over time.
What is "Leibniz's Law"?
The law that everything is identical with itself and with no other thing. Whatever is true of that thing, is true of anything identical with that thing (since that identical thing is that thing itself).