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42 Cards in this Set

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The change (at depth) from one rock to another- due to:

Pressure Increases
Temperature increase
Influences by the presence of fluids
Geologic Time
Includes reactions of mineralsto changes @ depth
Response to Equilibrium
Metamorphism change takes place in a ____ state.
Composition of Parent Rock
the starting point
Maybe confining pressure aka Lithostatic pressure
Pressure at Depth
-Composition of Parent Rock
-Pressure at Depth
Factors controlling the characteristics of Metamorphic rocks
Geothermal gradient _____ with ____
increases, depth
Temperature of meta rocks may be heated by friction from
Plate Tectonics
Temperature of meta rocks may be cooled by
igneous masses
Like Bowen's Reaction Series as far as temperature...
some minerals may melt
= Directed Pressure

-the influence that changes texture
Stress (the force)
Differential Stress is
Directed Pressure
Differential Stress / Directed Pressure can include:
-compressive stress
equal and opposite
compressive stress
opposite but parallel
alignment of rock fabrics or minerals; in response to Directed Pressure
Slaty Cleavage
Gneissic texture
examples of foliation
Differential Stress causes...
Strain results in
Type of metamorphic rock formed from directed pressure of mountain building processes or other tectonism (earth movements)
Type of metamorphic rock formed from contact with cooling igneous masses (magma or lava)
Type of metamorphic rock formed in association wih hot fluids (most commonly water)
-hot water may carry ions from place to place
-trigger metamorphic chemical reactions
controlling factor of fluids-hydrothermal
can only happen in Geologic time
-Not aligned
-named on the basis of its composition
-ex: quartzite and marble
Non-foliated rock texture
-Aligned minerals or rock fabric
-Determine type of foliation
-ex: schist
Foliated Rock texture
Progressive Metamorphism =
-Progressively greater temperature and pressure
-shale (the sedimentary rock)
~Slate -> Phyllite -> Schist -> Gneiss -> Migmatite
Progressive Metamorphism
-Hydrothermal Minerals
-Hydrothermal Activity at Diverging Plate
-Ore Deposits at Diverging Plate Boundaries
Hydrothermal Processes
from wet to dry
In metasomatism water exchanges ions from...
rock to rock
minerals emplaced in cracks, joints, faults
minerals emplaced in pores or vesicles
-Ground Water
-Water Trapped in Sediments
-Hydrous Minerals
Sources of water
like the copper ore in Michigans UP- the most economically valuable ore type
disseminated ore deposits
May take place at considerable depth and high temperatures
Regional Metamorphism
Regional Metamorphism is aka
dynamothermal metamorpshism
minerals include actinolite (new, asbestos min) and sodium rich plagioclase
basalt -> greenschist
minerals include hornblede, plagioclase feldspar, and garnet (another new mineral!)
Basalt -> amphibole schist
contact metamorphism is aka
thermal metamorphism
-Narrow zone of contact of country rock with cooling igneous mass...
-Forms a non-foliated MetaRx
Contact Metamorphism
Shale -> Hornfels
Limestone -> Marble
Sandstone -> Quartzite (Quartz grains welded together)
examples of nonfoliated contact MetaRx