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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cerebral spinal fluid produced by
choroid plexus of the four ventricles.
CSF function
1) structural support
2) cushioning to the brain and spinal cord.
Leptomeninges is composed of the:
1. Pia mater
2. Arachnoid
MENINGEAL SPACES
A.Epidural Space
1.Cranium - potential space
2.Spinal cord - real space

B. Subdural space
Cisterns
“Large” areas in the subarachnoid space
WHAT ARE THE THREE (3) MAJOR TYPES OF INTRACRANINAL BLEEDING?
1.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
2.Subdural Hemorrhage
3.Extradural (Epidural) Hemorrhage
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
-Common in trauma patients. Unconscious > 1 hr.
-Often caused by ruptured arterial aneurysm at base of brain.
-Sudden onset, severe headache, stiff neck.
-Signs of meningeal irritation.
Subdural Hemorrhage
-Minor to severe head trauma.
-Usually subdural veins rupture.
Fast or slow?
-Can cross suture lines.
-Common in alcoholics
Extradural (Epidural) Hemorrhage
-Usually follows traumatic rupture of middle meningeal artery or vein.
-Fracture of squamous temporal bone results in cut vessel.
-Can cross midline but not suture lines.
WHAT HAPPENS WITH A BUILD UP OF CSF?
Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus - 2 causes
1. OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS
2. COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS
OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS
Blockage in system or around the brain.
OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS: Possible causes?
Tumors, hemorrhage, infections, and
genetic
Where are the INSIDE “choke points”? OUTSIDE “choke points”?
??
COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS: Causes
A. Over production of CSF.
B. Impaired absorption by arachnoid villi.
C. Venus insufficiency.
Could blood in CSF affect the villi? Meningitis?
??
Dura mater components
1. Periosteal layer
2. Meningeal layer
3. Sinuses
Meningeal layer components
a. Falx cerebri and cerebelli
b. Tentorium cerebelli
c. Diaphragma sellae
Cerebrospinal fluid flow
Choroid plexus of lateral ventricles to
Interventricular foramen (of Monro) to
3rd ventricle to
Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) to
4th Ventricle to
Median and lateral apertures (Foramina of Magendie and Luschka) out
3 Anterior aspect subarachnoid cisterns
1. Chiasmatic
2. Interpeduncular
3. Pontine
2 Posterior aspect subarachnoid cisterns
1. Superior
2. Cerebellomedullary (Magna)
1 lateral aspect subarachnoid cistern
lateral cistern - In the area of the lateral sulcus
1 Spinal area subarachnoid cistern
lumbar cistern
Where is a lumbar puncture performed
lumbar cistern
HOW CAN INFECTIONS IN THE
CRANIAL SINUSES, CRANIAL BONES, FETAL MONITORING, AND BRAIN SURGERY LEAD TO CSF PROBLEMS ?
Emissary veins