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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Memory
the retention of information over time through encoding, storage, and retrieval
Encoding
the way in which information gets into memory storage
levels of processing theory
states that memory is on a continuum from shallow to deep, with deeper processing profucing better memory.
Elaboration
the extensiveness of processing at any given level of memory
storage
ways in which information is retained over time and how it is represented in memory
atkinson-shifftin theory
the view that memort involves a sequence of three stages, sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory
sensory memory
holds information from the world in its original gorm only for an instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory, and other senses
short-term memory
a limited capacity memory system in which information is retained for only as long as 30 secondsunless strategies are used to retain it longer
working memory
a three-part system that temporarily holds information. Working memory is a kind of mental workbench on which information is manipulated and assembled to perform other cognitive tasks.
long-term memory
a relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of infomation for a long period of time.
explicit memory(declatitive memory)
the conscious recollection of infomation, such as specifc facts or events and, at least in humans, infomation can be verbally communicated
episodic memory
the retention of infomation about the where and when of lifes happenings
sematntic memory
a persons knowledge about the world
retrospective memory
remembering the past
prospective memory
remembering information about doing something in the future
implicit memory (Nondeclaritive memory)
memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without that experience being consciously recollected
proceduaral memory
memory for skills
priming
a type of implicit memory: informationthat people already have in stoage is activated to help them remember new information better and faster
schema
a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret infomation
script
schema for an event
connectionism (parallel distributed provessing)
the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons, several of which may work together to preocess a single memory
retrieval
the memory process of taking information out of storage
serial position effect
the tendencey for items at the beginnings and at the end of a list to be recalled more readily
interference theory
states that people forget not because memories are actually lost from storage, but because other information gets in the way of what we want
proactive interference
occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later
retroactive interference
occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier
decay theory
states that when something new is learned, a neurochemical memory trace is formed, but over tme this trace tends to disintergrate
amnesia
the loss of memory
anterograde amnesia
a memory disorder tjat affects the retention of new information or events
retrograde amnesia
a memory disorder that involves a memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events