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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aden/o
gland
auto
self
bacteri/o
bacteria
immun/o
immune
lymph/o
lymph
macro
large
path/o
disease
spen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus
tox/o
poison
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AZT
azidothymidine
CMV
cytomegalovirus
ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
Ig
immunoglobulin
KS
Kaposi's sarcoma
MAI
Mycobacterium amium-intracillulare complex
PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus
STD
sexually transmitted disease
T&A
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TB
tuberculosis
acative immunity
immunity developed through exposure to a disease; antibodies are produced that protect the body upon second exposure
artificial active immunity
immunity provided by an immunization made from the causative agent in a mild form; the person's body makes antibodies against the causative agent
maternal immunity
immunity received when a mother passes her antibodies to the fetus through the placenta and to the newborn though her breast milk; the baby is immune to these diseases for a few months until able to develop his or her own antibodies
artificial passive immunity
immunity provided by an injection or infusion of antibodies developed from another person's exposure to the disease
species immunity
genetic immunity to animal diseases
aden/o
gland
auto-
self
bacteri/o
bacteria
immun/o
immune
lymph/o
lymph
macro
large
path/o
disease
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus
tox/o
poison
adenoid
lymph organs (glands) located in the back of the throat
afferent
toward; flowing in
antibody
immunoglobulin in the blood that is produced in response to an antigen; a protective protein produced by the body
antigen
substance that produces an immune response
cisterna chyli
or
cisternae chyli (pl)
drainage sac for the lymph of the abdominal and lumbar lymphatics
complement
substance present in the body; can destroy dangerous cells
efferent
outward; flowing away from
humor
watery fluid in the body
immune
or
immunity
not susceptible
imunoglobulin
portein in the body that helps to destroy antigens
immunology
practice and study of the immune system
inflammatory response
bodily response produced when an injury occurs; the area becomes inflamed with the characteristic signs: swelling, redness, warmth, and pain
interferon
glycoprotein that helps the body fight viruses; also involved in regulation of other cells in the body
involution
return of an organ or tissue from enlarged to normal size
lymph node
collection and filtration capsule of the lymphatic system located in the lymph vessels
macrophage
phagocytic cell in the tissues
mediastinum
central area of the chest that separates the two sides and includes all internal structures except for the lungs
monocyte
one of the WBC's found in lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow; a phagocytic cell that enfulfs and kills bacteria and plays a role in tumor cell kill
neutrophil
WBC that seeks, ingests, and kills bacteria
palatine tonsil
lymphoid tissue located on either side of the pharynx
phagocytosis
process of ingesting cell sor foreign substances
pharyngeal tonsil
lymphoid organ located at the back of the throat; one of the body's defenses that prevents foreign substances from entering the system
spleen
organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity; consists of lymphatic tissue with a large quantity of macrophages; a blood-forming organ in childhood and then a repository for RBCs and platelets; filters blood to eliminate old and destroued cells
thoracic duct
largest lymph vessel in the body; drains most of the body
thymosin
hormone of the thymus that stimulates the thymus to release its hormones
thymus
lymphoid organ located behind the mediastinum; functions in the development of the immune system until puberty
tonsil
lymphoid tissue located throughout the oropharyngeal cavity
diabetes (type 1)
1. ange at onset
2. antigen
1. at any age;
2. insulin, islet cell (pancreas)
glomerulonephritis (Goodpasture's syndrome)
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. any age
2. basement membrane (kidney)
Graves' disease thyrotoxicosis)
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1.
2. follicle membrane (thyroid)
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. any age
2. thyroglobulin (thyroid)
hemolytic anemia
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. any age
2. RBCs
immune thrombocytopenic purpura
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. any age
2. platelets
multiple sclerosis
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. young adults
2. nerve myelin
myasthenia gravis
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. older
2. myoneural junction (nerve cells)
pernicious anemia
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. older
2. intrinsic factor
rheumatoid arthritis (excluding juvenile rheunatoid arthritis, a systemic autoimmune disorder in children)
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. older
2. immunoglobulin G (IgG)
scleroderma
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. older
2. unknown
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
1. age at onset
2. antigen
1. young adults, most commonly females
2. DN
Kaposi's sarcoma
*malignancy, particularly of skin and lymph nodes, most commonly found in older men but new seen in person with AIDS

* caused by human herpesvirus 8
lymphoma
malignancy of lymph tissue that can be localized or systemic
candidiasis
fungus nomally found in the gastrointestinal tract that can cause systemic infection in an immunocompromised host

* caused by Candida albicans
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
* parasite found endemically that causes a particularly virulent type of pneumonia in the immunocompromised host

* caused by Pneumocystis carinii
tuberculosis (TB)
Mycobacterium that causes infection, usually in the lungs but sometimes disseminated, particularly in the immunocompromised host.

* caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium avium- intracellulare (MAI) complex
Mycobacerium that usually affects birds and fowl but has recently been found to be an opportunistic infection in AIDS patients

* caused by Mycobacerium avium- intracellulare complex
cytomegalovirus (CMV)
herpesvirus that infects humans and animals, causing swelling in the cell or organ in which it is found; particularly dangerous to the unborn child of an infected mother.

* Herpesviridae
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
group of illnesses that occur as a result of infection with the HIV-1 virus
anaphylaxis
sever reaction caused by increased sensitivity to a substance
asthma
disorder in which airways are temporarily narrowed, resulting in difficulty in breathing, coughing, gasping, and wheezing
ataxia telangiectasia
progressive immunodeficiency disorder involving many systems, particulary the nervous system; it is heredirary, caused by immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency and decreased T helper cells
autoimmune
process in which tdhe person's immune system turns against itself (relating to antibodies that attack the cills of the body producing them)
diabetes (type 1)
metabolic disease caused by decreased production of insulin (normally porduced in the pancreas); type 1 diabetes is thought to be autoimmune in nature
glomerulonephritis
disease of cells in the kidneys (glomeruli) characterized by inflammatory changes resulting from an infection
Graves' disease
autoimmine condition of the thyroid; a form of hyperthyroidism
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
autoimmune condition of the thyroid whereby it is infiltrated with lymphocytes
hemolytic anemia
autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies directed against RBCs that results in increased destruction, leading to anemia
immune thrombocytopenic purpura
autoimmune disorder that produces platelet antibodies and reslts in the destruction of the body's own platelets
immunodeficiency
state in which an individual has decreased immune fuction
myasthenia gravis
immunologic disorder of neuromuscular transmission
pernicious anemia
vetamin B12 deficiency that may be caused by an immunologic condition preventing absorption in the gastrointestinal tract; the erythrocytes are larger thatn normal and fewer are produced, causing the anemia
retrovirus
type of virus; a retrovirus causes HIV
rheumatoid arthritis
painful condition affecting articulation; immunolgic disorder causing pain and inflammaion of the joints
scleroderma
immunolgic disorder characterized by thickening of the skin; can be systemic
shotty
rubbery, freely movable, normal-feeling lymph node
systemic lups erythematosus
autoimmune disorder that causes inflammatory connective tissue disease in many areas of the body, including the kidneys, skin, and joints
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
hereditary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by ineffective antigen response; causes thrombocytopenia and frequent infections.
IgG
1. % found in blood
2. function
1. 80
2. crosses the placenta and assists with passive and recall immunity
IgA
1. % found in blood
2. function
1. 10-15
2. protects the gastrointestinal tract and eyes, since secretion may prevent antibody activity
IgM
1. %found in blood
2. function
1. 5-10
2. first line of defense; formed first in response to an antigen
IgD
1. % found in blood
2. function
1. <1
2. lymphocyte receptor on activated B cells
IgE
1. % found in blood
2. function
1. <0.001
2. effects the release of agents from cells called mast cells that cause asthma, hay fever, and anaphylaxis
(test)
antibody-detection tests
blood test that can detect specific antibodies
(test)
ELISA
very sensitive blood test to detect infectious diseases including AIDS
(test)
gallium scan
imaging process in which radionuclide substance is injected into the patient to enhance the visibility of lymphoid tissue; abnormal uptake in the lymph tissues may indicate a malignancy or other process
(test)
lymphangiography
radiographic study that visualizes the lymphatic system after injection of a radiopaque substance
(test)
RAST
assay that detects IgE-bound allergens that cause hypersensitivity
(test)
Western blot
test that separates proteins; known as an immunoblot
antibiotic (penicillin)
1. use
2. generic name
3. brand name
1. treat bacterial infections
2. penicillin V potassium amoxycillin
3. Veetids, Amoxil
antibiotic (sulfonamide)
1. use
2. generic name
3. brand name
1. treat bacterial infections
2. sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim
3. Bactrim
antifungal agents
1. use
2. generic name
3. brand name
1. treat local and/or systemic fungal infections
2. amphotericin B fluconazole nystatin
3. Fungizone, Amphotec, Diflucan, Mycostatin
antihistamines
1. use
2. generic name
3. brand name
1. block the release of histamine, which causes allergic reactions
2. diphenhydramine hydrochloride, hydroxyzine, hydrochloride
3. Benadryl, Vistaril
antiviral agents
1. use
2. generic name
3. brand name
1. interfere with viral replication
2. acyclovir, didanosine, DDI, zidovudine, AZT, foscarnet, PFA
3. Zovirax, Videx, Retrovir, Foscavir
intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)
1. use
2. generic name
3. brand name
1. produced from the plasma of volunteers; plasma is heat-treated to kill pathogens that may be present
2. immune globulin (intravenous), IVIG
3. Gamimune N; Gammagard S/D
protease inhibitors
1. use
2. generic name
3. brand name
1. inhibit the growth of HIV
2. indinavir sulfate
3. Crixivan