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223 Cards in this Set

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The digestive (gastrointestinal) tract begins with the ____ and ends with the ____.
mouth, anus
the three functions of the digestive system
digestion
absorption
elimination
passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
absorption
building blocks of proteins, produced when proteins are digested
amino acids
opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
anus
blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ); literally means hanging on
appendix
digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; breaks up large fat globules
bile
originally called gall
bile
pigment released by the liver in bile
bilirubin
intestine
bowel
pointed, "dog-tooth"-like teeth next to the incisors; also called cuspids or eyeteeth
canine teeth
first part of the large intestine
cecum
large intestine consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum
colon
caries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum
common bile duct
choledochus
common bile duct
elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum
defecation
swallowing
deglutition
major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
dentin
breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods
digestion
first part of the small intestine, measures 12 inches long
duodenum
act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials
elimination
physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
emulsification
hard outermost layer of a tooth
enamel
a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances, given names that end in -ase
enzymes
tube connecting the throat to the stomach
esophagus
substances produced when fats are digested
fatty acids
solid wastes; stools
feces
small sac under the liver; stores bile
gallbladder
simple sugar
glucose
starch; glucose is stored in this form in liver cells
glycogen
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
hydrochloric acid
third part of the small intestine
ileum
one of four front teeth in the dental arch
incisor
hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas; transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
insulin
second part of the small intestine
jejunum
pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
lipase
a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen; secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins, and destroys worn-out red blood cells
liver
liver weighs about ___ pounds
2-1/2 to 3 pounds
ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach; also called the cardiac sphincter
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
chewing
mastication
the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
molar teeth
the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars
premolar teeth
roof of the mouth
palate
lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jaw bone (maxilla)
hard palate
the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat
soft palate
organ under the stomach, produces insulin and enzymes
pancreas
small elevations on the tongue
papillae
a nipple-like elevation
papilla
salivary gland within the cheek just anterior to the ear
parotid gland
rhythmic contractions of the tubes of the GI tract and other tubular structures
peristalsis
throat
pharynx
common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
pharynx (throat)
large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
portal vein
enzyme that digests protein
protease
pend/o
hanging
ap-
on
eso-
inward
phag/o
swallowing
soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pulp
ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum
pyloric sphincter
distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
pylorus
last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rectum
ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
rugae
digestive juice produced by salivary glands
saliva
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
salivary glands
fourth and last S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
sigmoid colon
circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
sphincter
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
stomach
proximal section of the stomach
fundus
middle section of the stomach
body
distal section of the stomach
antrum
large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol
triglycerides
soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
uvula
microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
villi
an/o
anus
append/o
appendix
appendic/o
appendix
bucc/o
cheek
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
belly, abdomen
cheil/o
lip
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
common bile duct
col/o
colon, large intestine
colon/o
colon
dent/i
tooth
duoden/o
duodenum
surrounding the anus
perianal
inflammation and cracking of the corners of the mouth
cheilosis
surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystectomy
incision into the common bile duct
choledochotomy
the surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the body surface
colostomy
pertaining to the colon
colonic
endoscopic examination of the colon
colonoscopy
pertaining to the cheek and teeth
dentibuccal
pertaining to the duodenum
duodenal
opening between an organ and the surface of the body
stoma
enter/o
intestines, usually small intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
faci/o
face
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
inflammation of the small intestine and colon
enterocolitis
the surgical formation of a connection between the small intestine and colon
enterocolostomy
when used with two or more combining forms for organs, means the surgical creation of an opening between those organs inside the body
-stomy
any surgical connection between two parts, such as vessels, ducts or bowel segments
anastomosis
part of the double fold of peritoneum that stretches around the organs in the abdomen; holds the organs in place
mesentery
lies in the middle of the intestines, a membrane attaching the intestines to the muscle wall at the back of the abdomen
mesentery
taken into the body or administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract, as by intravenous or intramuscular injection
parenteral
par
apart from
surgical creation of an artificial opening into the stomach
gastrostomy
inflammation of the gingiva
gingivitis
under the tongue (sublingual)
hypoglossal
a tumor of the liver
hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma)
enlargement of the liver
hepatomegaly
the large intestine begins with the _____
ileocecal sphincter
inflammation of the ileum
ileitis
surgical creation of an opening into the ileum, with a stoma on the abdominal wall
ileostomy
anastomosis of the bile duct to the jejunum
choledochojejunostomy
surgical creation of an anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum
gastrojejunostomy (part of a gastric bypass procedure)
labi/o
lip
lapar/o
abdomen
lingu/o
tongue
mandibul/o
lower jaw, mandible
odont/o
tooth
or/o
mouth
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
pharyng/o
throat
proct/o
anus and rectum
pylor/o
pyloric sphincter
rect/o
rectum
sialaden/o
salivary gland
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
stomat/o
mouth
uvul/o
uvula
a form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS); examination or treatment of the interior of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope
laparoscopy
orth/o
straight
a dentist who specializes in periodontics
periodontist
the branch of dentistry concerned with the care and treatment of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth
periodontics
performs root canal therapy
endodontist
procedure to repair cleft palate and cleft lip; repair of a cleft palate
palatoplasty
inflammation of the peritoneum
peritonitis
surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue to open the airway; intended to cure extreme cases of snoring
palatopharyngoplasty
bulging of the front wall of the rectum into the vagina
rectocele
inflammation of the salivary gland
sialadenitis
visual examination (with a sigmoidoscope) of the lower third of the colon in a search for polyps
sigmoidoscopy
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth
stomatitis
removal of the uvula
uvulectomy
amyl/o
starch
bil/i
gall, bile
bilirubin/o
bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e
gall, bile
chlorhydr/o
hydrochloric acid
gluc/o
sugar
glyc/o
sugar
glycogen/o
glycogen, animal starch
lip/o
fat, lipid
lith/o
stone
prote/o
protein
sial/o
saliva, salivary
steat/o
fat
an enzyme produced in the pancreas and salivary glands that helps in the digestion of starches
amylase
having to do with the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile
biliary
includes the organs (liver and gallbladder) and ducts (hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts) that secrete, store, and empty bile into the duodenum
biliary tract
elevated level of the pigment bilirubin in the blood
hyperbilirubinemia
the presence of stones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
cholelithiasis
lith/o
stone or calculus
-iasis
abnormal condition
absence of gastric juice, associated with gastric carcinoma
achlorhydria
liver cells make new sugar from fats and proteins
gluconeogenesis
high blood sugar
hyperglycemia
liver cells change glycogen back to glucose when blood sugar levels drop
glycogenolysis
a benign fatty tumor
lipoma
the formation of calculi (stones)
lithogenesis
enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic breakdown of proteins
protease
a calculus occurring in a salivary gland or duct
sialolith
excess fat in feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
steatorrhea
-ase
enzyme
-chezia
defecation, elimination of wastes
-prandial
meal
an enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats
lipase
speed up chemical reactions
enzymes
bright red blood found in the feces
hematochezia
the presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct
choledocholithiasis
postprandial
after meals
the three functions of the digestive system
digestion, absorption, elimination
yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood
jaundice (icterus)
failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax
achalasia
-chalasia
relaxation
swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
esophageal varices
increased pressure in veins near and around the liver
portal hypertension
malignant tumor of the stomach
gastric carcinoma
solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
the burning sensation caused by regurgitation of hydrochloric acid from the stomach to the esophagus
heartburn
Chronic exposure of esophageal mucosa to gastric acid and pepsin leads to _____.
reflux esophagitis
protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
hernia
occurs when the upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm
hiatal hernia
occurs when a small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal muscle
inguinal hernia
abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
anal fistula
polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
colonic polyposis
adenocarcinoma of the colon, rectum or both
colorectal cancer
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
Crohn's disease
abnormal side pockets in the intestinal wall
diverticulosis
painful, inflamed intestines
dysentery
swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
hemorrhoids
failure of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
ileus
telescoping of the intestines
intussusception
group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
ulcerative colitis
twisting of the intestine on itself
volvulus
gallstones in the gallbladder
cholelithiasis
pain from blocked cystic or common bile duct
biliary colic
laparoscopic or minimally invasive surgery performed to remove the gallbladder and stones
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
chronic degenerative disease of the liver
cirrhosis
inflammation of the pancreas
pancreatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
viral hepatitis
used to puncture and enter the abdomen; metal sleeves consisting of a hollow metal tube (cannula) into which fits an obturator used to puncture the wall of a body cavity
trocar