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82 Cards in this Set

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GI
Gastrointestinal
GI System
also known as Digestive system and alimentary canal
alimentation
to nourish
3 functions of the digestive system
1.break down food (mechanical and chem (enzymes) break down)
2. prepare food for absorption
3. eliminate waste (feces/stool)
GI system
GI tract and
GI tract
tubing from mouth to anus
accessory digestive organs
teeth,tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallblader, and pancreas
bucca
cheeks
tongue
moves food along; speech; and taste
teeth
mastication (chewing)
8 incisors and 4 canines/cuspids
used for biting and tearing
8 premolars/bicuspids
12 molars
chewing and grinding
dentation
person has their natural teeth
edentulous
person does not have their natural teeth (either no teeth or false teeth)
gingiva
gums
palate
roof of mouth
uvula
soft, fleshy, pinkish, v-shaped tissue. Hang in the back of your mouth
salivary glands
secrete saliva (moistens food)
pharynx
divides into two tubes
trachea (windpipe) to lungs
esophagus leads to stomach
esophagus
leads from the pharynx to the stomach
cardiac sphincter
ring of muscles at end of esophagus keeps stomach contents from going back into the esophagus
epiglottis
covers the trachea so food will go through the esophagus to the stomach
stomach
mechanically and chemically (hydrochloric and enzymes) digest food
fundus
upper part of stomach
body
main part of the stomach
antrum
lower part of the stomach
vagotomy
incision into the vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve) to reduce the amount of gastric acid - tx /prevention of ulcers
pylorus
connects the stomach with the small intestines
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle that controls the "food" going from the stomach to the duodenum
small intestines
digestion is completed here
the digestion products are absorbed into the bloodstream
duodenum
acts like a mixing bowl, to mix food together, bile from the liver and gallbladder, juice from the pancreas
ileum
most of the absorption takes place here
large intestines
elimination of waste
cecum
appendix is attached here
colon
divided into ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum
liver
makes bile
jejunum
middle of the small intestine to the ileum is about 8 feet long
bilirubin
substance produced from the destruction of the erythrocytes and is released by the liver in bile.
pancreas
produces pancreatic juice (digestive juices)
gallbladder
stores bile
bile ducts
passageways that carry bile, when bile is needed for digestion
hepatic duct
carries bile from the liver
cystic duct
carries bile from the gallbladder
common bile duct
the joining together of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct, to carry the bile to the duodenum
bruxism
involuntary grinding of teeth
aphthous stomatitis
canker sores - sores/ulcers in the lining of the mouth
herpes labialis
cold sores/fever blisters caused by the herpes simplex virus that affect the lip and surrounding tissue
esophageal reflux
return of stomach contents into the esophagus
reflux
backward flow
pyrosis
heartburn; regurgitation of stomach acid upward along the esophagus
ulcer
an open sore or lesion of the skin or mucouos membrane
gastric ulcer
ulcer of the stomach
caused by excess acid
tx with antacids
possible cause bacteria
peptic ulcer
ulcer of the stomach or duodenum
perforated ulcer
untreated ulcer may eventually lead to a hole
perforation
hole
peritonitis
inflammation of peritoneum
peritoneum
lining of the abdominal cavity
hernia
the protrusion of an organ, tissue, or structure throughy the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained
hiatal hernia
part of the stomach protrudes through the hole in the diaphragm which is meant for the esophagus
inguinal herina
is in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meets the thighs
umbilical hernia
protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel
adhesion
abnormal growing toegther of two surfaces that normally are seperated (may happen after abdominal surgery)
ileus
obstruction of the intestines
polyp
growth (ususally benign) extending forward from a mucous membrane
hepatitis A
caused by contaminated water or food (oral intake)
hepatitis B
caused by contaminated blood (parenteral - needles)
vaccination available
hepatitis C
caused by contaminated blood
no vaccination
anorexia
without appetite
ascites
accumulation of fluid
Crohn's disease
chronic inflammation of intestines - usually ileum
cirrohsis
liver is degenerating / dying
diverticulosis
diverticula develop in the walls of the large intestine, if they are inflammed it is diverticulitis
diverticula
small blisterlike pockets
gavage
feeding tube
lavage
cleaning out
melena
dark stools - has blood in them
occult blood
blood in stolls but you can't see it
anastomosis
used to reattach the intestines back together after inflammed section is removed from a Crohn's patient
colostomy
new opening in colon fecal material will exit through hole into bag
BM
bowel movement
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal