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232 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
atrium
upper right and left chamber of the heart
endocardium
membrane lining the cavities of the heart
epicardium
membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
interatrial septum
partition between right and left atrium
intercentricular septum
partition between right and left ventricle
myocardium
heart muscle
pericardium
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fliud between outer layer
parietal pericardium
outer layer of the pericardium
pericardial cavity
fliu-filled cavity beween the pericardial layers
visceral pericardium
layer closest to the heart
ventricle
lower right and left chambers of the heart
heart valves
structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
aortic valve
heart valve between the left venricle and the aorta
mitral or bicuspid valve
heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart vavle opening from the right ventricle to the plmonary artery
tricuspid valve
valve betwwen the right atrium and the right ventricle
valves of the veins
valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
angio
vaso
vasculo
vessel
aorto
aorta
arterio
artery
athero
fatty lipid paste
artio
atrium
cardio
heart
corono
circle or crown
myo
muscle
pectoro
stetho
chest
sphygmo
pulse
thrombo
clot
veno
phlebo
vein
varico
swollen, twisted vein
ventriculo
ventricle (belly or pouch)
arteries
vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
aorta
large artery that is the main truck of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
arterioles
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
capillaries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
veins
vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
coronary circulation
circulatio of blood though the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
pulmonary circulatin
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via pulmonary vein providing for the exchange of gases
diastole
to expand, period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the artia
systole
to contract, period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary system
normotension
normal blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure
hypertension
high blood pressure
sinoatrial node (SA)
the pacemaker, highly specialized neurological tissue, embedded in the wall of the right atrium, responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
atrioventricular node
neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the condution of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
bundle of His
neurological fibers, extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches, that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
polarization
resting, resting state of a myocardial cell
depolarization
change of a myocardial cell from a polarized state to a state of contraction
repolarization
recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
normal sinus rhythm
regular rhythm of the heart cycle stiumlated by the SA node
arteriosclerosis
thickening, loss of elasticity and calcification of the arterial walls
atherosclerosis
buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
atheromatous plaque
a swollen area within the livning of an artery caused by the buildup of fat
thrombus
a stionary blood clot
embolus
a blos carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges
stenosis
condition of narrowing of a party
constriction
compression of a part
occlusion
plugging obstruction or a closing off
ischemia
to hold back blood, decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
perfusion deficit
a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc.
infarct
to stuff a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris
chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries
aneurysm
a widening bulging of the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
saccular
a sac-like bulge on one side
fusiform
a spindle-like bulge
dissecting
a split or tear of the vessel wall
claudication
to limp, pain in a limb, especially the calg while walking that subsides after rest, it is caused by inadequated blood supply
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
heart murmur
an abnormal sound frm the heart produced by defects in the chambers of valves
palpitation
subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
vegetation
to grow, an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a results of an infection such as bacterial endocarditis
arrhythmia
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
bradycardia
slow heart rate under 60 beats per minute
fibrillation
chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
flutter
extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular flutter 250-350 beats per minute
premature ventricular contraction
a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node
tachycardia
fast heart rate over 100 beats per minute
arteriosclerotic heart disease
a degenerative condition of thearteries characterized by thickenng of the inner lining loss of elasticity and susceptibility to rupture seen most often in the aged or smokers
baterical endocarditis
a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
cardic tamponade
compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fliud in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
cardiomyopathy
a general term for disease of the heart muscle
congestive heart failure
failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body resulting in a bottlenect of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins causinng edema in lower portions of the body
cor pulmonale

right ventricular failure
a condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of chronic disease with in th lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
coronary artery disease
a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium - most often caused by atherosclerosis
hypertension
persistently high blood pressure
essentia (primary) hypertension
high blood pressure attributed to no single cause, but risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia and herediary factors
secondary hypertension
high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
mitral valve prolapse
protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventircular contraction resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infarction
heart attack
myocarditis
inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
phebitis
inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease
damange to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins
abnormally swolen twisted veins with defective valves, most often see in the legs
deep vein thrombosis
formation of a blot in a depe vein of the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
auscultation
a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope
bruit
noise, an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulence within
gallop
an abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse, related to abnormal ventricular contraction
stress electrocardiogram
an EGG of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise useful in detecting conditions such as ischemia and infarction
Holter ambulatory monitor
a portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient that monitors electrical activity of the heart over 24 hours - useful in detecting periodic abnormalities
radiology
x ray imaging
angiography
an x ray of a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium
angiogram
a record obtained by angiography
coronary angiogram
an x ray of the blood vessels of the heart
arteriogram
an x ray of a particular artery
aortogram
an x ray of the aorta
venogram
an x ray of a vein
cardiac catheterization
introduction of a flexible narrow tube or catheter through a vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of blood, measure pressure within the heart chambers or vessels, and inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film imaging of the chambers of the heart and coronary arteries, very often includes interventional procedures such as angioplasty and atherectomy
left heart catheterization
an x ray of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
right heart catheterization
an x ray visualizing the ventricles
Transesophageal echocardiogram
an echcardiographic image of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
doppler sonography
an ultrasound technique used to evalute blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombsis or carotid insuffieciency or flow through the heart chambers, valves, etc.
intravascular sonography
ultrasound images made after a sonographic transducer is placed at the tip of a catheter within a blood vessel - done to evaulate pathological conditions such as build up of plaque
conotary artery by pass graft (CABG)
grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
anastomosis
openng joining of two blood vesses to allow flow from one to the other
endarterectomy
incision and cooring of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
valve replacement
surgery to replace a dieased heart valve with an artifical one

tissue - pig
mechanicial - man made
valvuloplasty
repair of a heart valve
endovascular surgery
interventional procedures performed endoscopically at the time of cardiac catheterization
angioscopy
use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope accompanied by an irrigation syste, camera, video recorder, and a monitor that is guided through a specific blood vesse to visually assess a lesion and select the mode of therapy
atherectomy
excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue build up
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment then inflating it to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium
intravasular stent
implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and ensure its patency most often used to treat a stenosis or a dissection or to reinforce patency of a vessel after angioplasty
defibrillation
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart, most commonly by applying electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall but can be performed internally at the time of open heart surgery or via an implanted device
defibrillator
a device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
cardioversion
termination of tachycardia either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
an implanted, battery operated device with rate sensing leads that monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
pacemaker
a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating the heart to contract, most often implanted with lead wires inserted into the heart via a vein
thrombolytic therapy
dissolution of thrombi using drugs
antiarrhythmic
a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
anticoagulant
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood commonly used in treating thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
antihypertensive
a drug that lowers blood pressure
diuretic
a drug that increases the secretion of urine commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
hypolipidemic
a drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
statins
agents that lower cholesterol in the blood by inhibiting the effect of HMG-CoA reductase, a liver enzyme responsible for producting cholesterol
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi
vasoconstrictor
a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels decreasing blood flow
vasodilator
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels increasing blood flow.
blasto
blast
germ or bud
chromo
chromato
color
chylo
juice
hemo
hemato
blood
immuno
safe
lympho
clear fluid
morpho
form
myelo
bone marrow
phago
eat or swallow
plaso
formation
reticulo
a net
spleno
spleen
thrombo
clot
thymo
thymus gland
plasma
liquid portion of the blood and lymph containg water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, vitamins, cellular components
serum
liquid portion of the blood left after the clotting process
erthrocyte
red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within the bloodstream
hemoglobin
protein iron compoud contained i the erythrocyte that has bonding capabilities for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
leukocyte
white blood cell that protects the body from invasion of harmful substances
platelets
thrombocytes cell fragments in the blood essential for blood clotting
thymus
the primary gland of the lymphtic system located with the mediastinum helps maintain the body's immune response by productin T lymphocytes
spleen
the organ between the stomach and diaphagm that filters out aging blood cells removes cellular debris by peforming phagocytosis and provides the environment for the initiation of immune reponses by lymphocytes
lymph
fliud originating in the organs and tissues of the body
lymph capillaries
misroscopic vessels that draw lymph from the tissues to the lymph vessels
lymph vessels
vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
lacteals
specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat into the blood stream
chyle
a white or pale yellow substance of the lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
lymph nodes
many small oval structures that filter the lymph received from the lymph vessels major locations include the cervical region, axillary region and inguinal region
lymph ducts
collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
antigen
a substance that when introduced into the body causes the formation of antibodies against it
antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
immunoglobulins
protein antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes that protect the body from invasion of foreign pathogents
immunity
process of diease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
active immunity
an immunity that protects the body against a future infection as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after contrating an infection
passive immunity
an immunity resulting from antibodies that are conveyed naturally through the placenta to a fetus or artifically by injection of a serum containing antibodies
microcytosis
the presence of small red blood cells
macrocytosis
the presence of large red blood cells
anisocytosis
the presence of red blood cells of unequal size
poikilcytosis
the presence of arge irregularly shaped red blood cells
reticulocytosis
an increase of immature erthrocytes in the blood
erythropenia
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
lymphocytopenia
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
neutropenia
a decrease in the number of neutrophils
pancytopenia
an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
hemolysis
breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
immunocompromised
impaired immunological defenses caused b an immunodeficiency diorder or therapy with immunosupressive agents
lymphadenopathy
the presence of enlarged lymph nodes
immunosuppression
impaired ability to procide an immune response
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
anemia
a condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in the blood resulting in a diminished ability of the red blood cells to transport oxgen to the tissues
hemophilia
a group of hereditary bleeding diorders in whch there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
leukemia
a chronic or acute malignant disease of the blood forming organs mark by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone barrow
myelodysplasia
a disorder within the bone marrow characterized by the proliferation of abnormal stem cells usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
lymphoma
any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue usually malignant as in Hodgkin disease
metastasis
the process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs
mononucleosis
a conditin cause by the epstein barr cirus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes faigue and sore throat
polycythemia
an increase in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
septicemia
a systemic diesease caused by the infection of microorganisms and their toxins in the circulating blood
thrombocytopenia
a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platlets in the blood which impairs the clotting process
blood chemistry
a test of the fuild portion of blood to measure the presence of a chemical constituent
blood culture
a test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a speciment of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms the speciman is observed and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
complete blood count
the most common labratory blood test performed as a screen of general healh or for idagnostic purposes the following is a listing of the component tests
white blood count
a count of the number of white blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods
red blood count
a count of the number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods
hemoglobin
a test to determine the blood level of hemglobin
hematocrit
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
venipuncture
phlebotomy
an incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
bone marrow aspiration
a needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathological examination
bone marrow biopsy
a pathologcal examination of bone marrow tissue
lymphangiogram
an x ray image of a lymph node or vessel taken after injection of a contrast medium
computer tomography
full body x ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
positron emissions tomography
radionuclide scans espeically of the whole body are useful to in determining the recurrence of cancers of to measure reponse to therapy commonly used in evaulating lymphoma
bone marrow transplant
the transplantatio of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donar to a disease recipient to stimulate blood cell production
lymphadenectomy
the removal of a lymph node
lyphadenotomy
an incision in the lymph node
lymph node dissection
the removal of possible cancer carrying lymph nodes for pathological examination
splenectomy
the removal of the spleen
thymectomy
the removal of the thymus gland
blood transfusion
the introduction of blood products into the circulatin of a receipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
autologous blood
blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use
homologous blood
blood voluntarily donated by ny person for tranfusion to a compatible receipient
blood component therapy
the transfusion of specific blood componenets such as packed red blood cells, platelets and plasma
crossmatching
a method of matching a donars blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
chemotherapy
the treatment of malignancies, infections and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
immunotherapy
the use of biology agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mchanisms
plasmpheresis
the removal of plasma frm the body with separation and extraction of specific elements followed by reinfusion
anticoagulant
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
hemostatic
a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessels
vasoconstrictor
a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels decreasing blood flow
vasodilator
a drug that causes dialition of blood vessels increasing blood flow.