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113 Cards in this Set

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appendectomy
A surgical procedure which involves the removal of an inflamed appendix.
appendicitis
Inflammation (and usually infection) of the appendix,
atresia
Absence or closure of a natural passage or channel of the body; imperforation.
bilirubin
orange-yellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span.
buccal
Pertaining to or directed toward the cheek.
cheilosis
Inflammation and cracking of the lips. May occur secondary to a vitamin (C or B-complex) or mineral deficiency.
cholecystitis
Acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder.
cholecystogram
The radiographic record of the gallbladder obtained by cholecystography.
cholelithiasis
abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder.
deglutition
swallowing.
defecation
act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus.
digestion
process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by the body cells; this occurs in the digestive tract.
duodenal
pertaining to the duodenum
duodenostomy
A surgical procedure where a opening is created in the duodenum.
duodenum
The first or proximal portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum, so called because it is about 12 fingerbreadths in length.
emulsify
disperse a liquid into another liquid, make a colloidal suspension
enteritis
Inflammation of the intestine, applied chiefly to inflammation of the small intestine.
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
feces
waster or excrement from the digestive tract that is formed in the intestine and expelled through the rectum
gastrectasia
Dilation of the stomach.
gastric
Of or relating to the stomach.
gastroenterologist
medical doctor who specializes in the study of diseases and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and bile duct.
gastrorrhagia
Haemorrhage from the stomach.
gastrostomy
The operation of making a permanent opening into the stomach, for the introduction of food.
gavage
procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube.
gingivitis
Inflammation of the gingivae. Gingivitis associated with bony changes is referred to as periodontitis.
glossitis
Inflammation of the tongue.
glucogenesis
The making of molecules of the sugar glucose within a living cell from something other than glycogen
glycogensis
conversion of simple sugar into a complex form of sugar (starch) for storage in the liver.
glycolysis
The conversion of a monosaccharide (generally glucose) to pyruvate via the glycolytic pathway
hepatomegaly
Enlargement of the liver
hepatorrhaphy
Suture of a wound of the liver.
herniorrhaphy
The surgical repair of a hernia
hyperemesis
Excessive vomiting.
ileum
dustal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum.
jejunostomy
Surgical formation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the jejunum,
jejunum
intermediate or middle of the 3 portions of the small intestine, connecting proximally with the duodenum and distally with the ileum.
laparoscopy
A surgical procedure in which a tiny scope is inserted into the abdomen through a small incision
lavage
process of irrigating, or washing out an organ, usually the bladder, bowel, paranasal, or stomach for therapeuitic purposes.
lingual
The tooth surface next to your tongue or things mounted on the tooth surfaces next to your tongue.
lithogenesis
Formation of calculi-An abnormal concretion occurring within the animal body and usually composed of mineral salts.
mastication
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva.
orthodontist
A dentist who has been specially trained to do orthodontics.
periodontal
Pertaining to your gums.
peristalsis
The wormlike movement by which the alimentary canal or other tubular organs provided with both longitudinal and circular muscle fibres propel their contents. It consists of a wave of contraction passing along the tube for variable distances.
peritoneal
Of or pertaining to the peritoneum.
pharyngoscope
An instrument like a laryngoscope, used for inspection of the mucous membrane of the pharynx.
pharynx
throat, tubular structure about 13 cm long that extends from teh base of the skull to the esophagus and is situated just in front of the cervical vertebrae.
polyphagia
Great hunger, a sign of diabetes. People with this great hunger often lose weight.
proctoscopy
Endoscopic examination of the rectum.
stomatitis
Inflammation of the oral mucosa, due to local or systemic factors which may involve the buccal and labial mucosa, palate, tongue, floor of the mouth and the gingivae.
stomatoplasty
Plastic surgery of the mouth.
uvula
small, cone-shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft plate.
achalasia
decreased mobility of the lower two-thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter.
anal fistula
abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum.
aphthous stomatitis
small inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside the cheeks of the mouth; canker sores
celiac disease
nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa
cirrhosis
disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative causing injury to the hepatocytes
colorectal cancer
presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
crohn's disease
digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
denta caries
tooth decay caused by acid-forming micoorganisms
diverticular disease
expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis
diverticula (singular, diverticulum)
As a person ages, pressure within the large intestine (colon) causes pockets of tissue (sacs) that push out from the colon walls.
divericulitis
inflammation of diverticula in diverticular disease
diverticulosis
noninflamed outpouches or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestine typically the sigmoid colon.
dysentery
used to describe painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants
hemorrhoids
permanently distended vein, called a varicosity, in the distal rectum or anus
hepatitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites.
hernia
irregular of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's musclular wall.
hiatal hernia/diaphragmatic hernia
A type of hernia that occurs when a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm (where the oesophagus normally passes through). Obesity and smoking are considered risk factors.
herpetic stomatitis
inflammatory infectious lesion in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primary or secondary viral infection caused by herpes or herpes simplex.
ileus
term used to describe an obstruction of the intestine.
intestinal obstruction
complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the contents in the small or large intestines.
intussusception
telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine usually in the ileocecal region causing an obstruction.
irritable bowel syndrome
increased mobility of the samll or large intestinal wall resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of gas throughout the intestines.
oral leukoplakia
precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
pancreatitis
acute or chronic inflammatory condition of the pancreas
peptic ulcer
break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium.
thrush
fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and the other oral mucosal surfaces.
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers.
volvulus
rotation of loops of bowel causing twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction.
abdominocentesis/paracentesis
abdominocentesis involves insertion of a needle or trochar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person sitting in a sitting positon.
barium enema
infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum and held in the lower intestinal tact while x-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract.
barium swallow (upper GI series)
involves oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows.
cheiloplasty
surgically correcting a defect of the lip
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder.
cholecystography
visualization of the gallbladder through x-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye.
colonscopy
direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberscoptic colonoscope.
colostomy
surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which the feces will be expelled by bringing the incised colon out of the abdominal surface.
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualizations with a fiberoptic telescope.
gastric lavage
irrigation or washing out, of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution.
gastriointestinal endoscopy
involves the direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a lighted, fiberoptic endoscope.
lithotripsy
Known as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, this procedure uses sound waves delivered inside a water bath to pulverize kidney stones painlessly inside the body.
nasogastric intubation
involves tube placement through the nose into the stomach for the purpose of relieving gastric distension by removing gastric secretions, gas or food.
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
examination of the bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium; also known as PTHC.
stool guaiac (occult blood)
analysis of a stool sample to determine the presence of blood not visible to the naked eye
ac
before meals (ante cibum)
BE
barium enema
bid
twice a day
CT
computerized tomography (scan)
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GB
gallbladder
GERD
gastroesphageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
GTT
glucose tolerance test
HBV
hepatitis B virus
HCV
hepatitis C virus
IBS
irritable bowel syndrome
MRI
magnetic reasonance imaging
N & V
nausea and vomiting
NPO
nothing by mouth
pc
after meals (post cibum)