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1657 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Addison’s Disease
1. Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addisonian Anemia
2. Pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells →↓IF →↓Vit B12 →megaloblastic anemia)
Albright’s Syndrome
3. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
Alport’s Syndrome
4. Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alzheimer’s
5. Progressive dementia
Argyll-Robertson Pupil
6. Loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral)
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
10. Cerebellar tonsil herniation through foramen magnum = see thoracolumbar meningomyelocele
Barrett’s
11. Columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (↑risk of adenocarcinoma)- constant gastroesophageal reflux
Bartter’s Syndrome
12. Hyperreninemia
Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy
13. Similar to Duchenne
Bell’s Palsy
14. CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
Berger’s Disease
15. IgA nephropathy causing hematuria in kids
Bernard-Soulier Disease
16. Defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
Berry Aneurysm
17. Circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) Anterior Communicating artery
Bowen’s Disease
19. Carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (↑risk of visceral ca) [compare w/ Queyrat]
Brill-Zinsser Disease
20. Recurrences of rickettsia prowazaki up to 50 yrs later
Briquet’s Syndrome
21. Somatization disorder
Broca’s Aphasia
23. Motor Aphasia (area 44 & 45) intact comprehension
Brown-Sequard
24. Hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch
Bruton’s Disease
25. X-linked agammaglobinemia (↓B cells)
Budd-Chiari
26. Post-hepatic venous thrombosis = ab pain; hepatomegaly; ascites; portal HTN; liver failure
Buerger’s Disease
27. Acute inflammation of medium and small arteries of extremities →painful ischemia →gangrene
Burkitt’s Lymphoma
29. Small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV
31. Seen commonly in jaws
abdomen
Caisson Disease
33. Nitric gas emboli
Chagas’ Disease
34. Trypansoma infection - cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chediak-Higashi Disease
35. (AR) Phagocyte Deficiency = defect in microtubule polymerization
36. Neutropenia
albinism
Conn’s Syndrome
37. Primary Aldosteronism: HTN; retain Na+ & H2O; hypokalemia (causing alkalosis); ↓renin
Cori’s Disease
38. Type III Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (debranching enz: amylo 1
Creutzfeldt-Jakob
39. Prion infection →cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome
40. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
Crohn’s
43. IBD; ileocecum
44. (contrast to UC: limited to colon
mucosa & submucosa
Curling’s Ulcer
46. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Cushing’s
47. Disease: Hypercorticism 2to ↑ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma)
Cushing’s Ulcer
0. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis
1. Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome
2. Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
3. Thymic hypoplasia →T-cell deficiency
4. Hypoparathyroidism Tetany
Down’s Syndrome
Dressler’s Syndrome
6. Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
7. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
8. Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
9. Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Cushing’s Ulcer
0. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis
1. Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome
2. Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
3. Thymic hypoplasia →T-cell deficiency
4. Hypoparathyroidism Tetany
Down’s Syndrome
. Trisomy 21 or translocation – Simian Crease
Dressler’s Syndrome
6. Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
7. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
8. Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
9. Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Addison’s Disease 1
Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addisonian Anemia 2
Pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells →↓IF →↓Vit B12 →megaloblastic anemia)
Albright’s Syndrome 3
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia; precocious puberty; café au lait spots; short stature; young girls
Alport’s Syndrome 4
Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alzheimer’s 5
Progressive dementia
Argyll-Robertson Pupil 6
Loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral)
7
“Prostitute’s Eye” – accommodates but does not react
8
Pathognomonic for 3Syphilis
9
Lesion pretectal region of superior colliculus
Arnold-Chiari Malformation 10
Cerebellar tonsil herniation through foramen magnum = see thoracolumbar meningomyelocele
Barrett’s 11
Columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (↑risk of adenocarcinoma)- constant gastroesophageal reflux
Bartter’s Syndrome 12
Hyperreninemia
Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy 13
Similar to Duchenne; but less severe (mutation; not a deficiency; in dystrophin protein)
Bell’s Palsy 14
CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
Berger’s Disease 15
IgA nephropathy causing hematuria in kids; usually following infection
Bernard-Soulier Disease 16
Defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
Berry Aneurysm 17
Circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) Anterior Communicating artery
18
Often associated with ADPKD
Bowen’s Disease 19
Carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (↑risk of visceral ca) [compare w/ Queyrat]
Brill-Zinsser Disease 20
Recurrences of rickettsia prowazaki up to 50 yrs later
Briquet’s Syndrome 21
Somatization disorder
22
Psychological: multiple physical complaints without physical pathology
Broca’s Aphasia 23
Motor Aphasia (area 44 & 45) intact comprehension
Brown-Sequard 24
Hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch; UMN / ipsi loss of consc
Bruton’s Disease 25
X-linked agammaglobinemia (↓B cells)
Budd-Chiari 26
Post-hepatic venous thrombosis = ab pain; hepatomegaly; ascites; portal HTN; liver failure
Buerger’s Disease 27
Acute inflammation of medium and small arteries of extremities →painful ischemia →gangrene
28
Seen almost exclusively in young and middle-aged men who smoke
Burkitt’s Lymphoma 29
Small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV
30
8:14 translocation
31
Seen commonly in jaws; abdomen; retroperitoneal soft tissues
32
Starry sky appearance
Caisson Disease 33
Nitric gas emboli
Chagas’ Disease 34
Trypansoma infection - cardiomegaly with apical atrophy; achlasia
Chediak-Higashi Disease 35
(AR) Phagocyte Deficiency = defect in microtubule polymerization
36
Neutropenia; albinism; cranial & peripheral neuropathy & repeated infections w/ strep & staph
Conn’s Syndrome 37
Primary Aldosteronism: HTN; retain Na+ & H2O; hypokalemia (causing alkalosis); ↓renin
Cori’s Disease 38
Type III Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (debranching enz: amylo 1;6 glucosidase def
Creutzfeldt-Jakob 39
Prion infection →cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome 40
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
41
Glucuronyl transferase deficiency
42
Less severe form will respond to Phenobarbital therapy
Crohn’s 43
IBD; ileocecum; transmural; skip lesions; cobblestones; lymphocytic infiltrate; granulomas
44
(contrast to UC: limited to colon; mucosa & submucosa; crypt abscesses; pseudopolyps; ↑colon cancer risk)
45
Clinically: ab pain & diarrhea; fever; malabsorption; fistulae b/t intestinal loops & abd structures
Curling’s Ulcer 46
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Cushing’s 47
Disease: Hypercorticism 2to ↑ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma)
48
Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1adrenal or ectopic)
49
- moon face; buffalo hump; purple striae; hirsutism; HTN; hyperglycemia
Cushing’s Ulcer 50
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis 51
Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome 52
Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
53
Thymic hypoplasia →T-cell deficiency
54
Hypoparathyroidism Tetany
Down’s Syndrome 55
Trisomy 21 or translocation – Simian Crease
Dressler’s Syndrome 56
Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome 57
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
58
Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 59
Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Edwards’ Syndrome 60
Trisomy 18
61
Rocker-bottom feet; low ears; small lower jaw; heart disease
Ehler’s-Danlos 62
Defective collagen
Eisenmenger’s Complex 63
Late cyanotic shunt (R→L) pulmonary HTN & RVH 2to long-standing VSD; ASD; or PDA
Erb-Duchenne Palsy 64
Trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip
Ewing Sarcoma 65
Malignant undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone in boys <15yoa - t11;22
Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat 66
Carcinoma in situ on glans penis
Fanconi’s Syndrome 67
Impaired proximal tubular reabsorption 2to lead poisoning or Tetracycline (glycosuria;
Felty’s Syndrome 68
Rheumatoid arthritis; neutropenia; splenomegaly
Gardner’s Syndrome 69
AD = adenomatous polyps of colon; osteomas & soft tissue tumors
Gaucher’s Disease 70
Lysosomal Storage Disease glucocerebrosidase deficiency – glucocerebroside accumulation
71
Hepatosplenomegaly; femoral head & long bone erosion; anemia
Gilbert’s Syndrome 72
Benign congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) = ↓d glucuronyl transferase activity
Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia 73
Defective glycoproteins on platelets = deficient platelet aggregation
Goodpasture’s 74
Autoimmune: ab’s to glomerular & alveolar basement membranes
Grave’s Disease 75
Autoimmune hyperthyroidism (TSI): IgG Ab reactive w/ TSH receptors
Guillain-Barre 76
Polyneuritis following viral infection/ autoimmune (ascending muscle weakness & paralysis; usually self-limiting)
Hamman-Rich Syndrome 77
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Hand-Schuller-Christian 78
Chronic progressive histiocytosis
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis 79
Autoimmune hypothyroidism
Hashitoxicosis 80
Initial hyperthyroidism in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis that precedes hypothyroidism
Henoch-Schonlein purpura 81
Hypersensivity vasculitis = allergic purpura
82
Hemmorhagic urticaria (with fever; arthralgias; GI & renal involvement)
83
Associated with upper respiratory infections
Hirschprung’s Disease 84
Aganglionic megacolon
Horner’s Syndrome 85
Ptosis; miosis; anhidrosis (lesion of cervical sympathetic nerves often 2to a Pancoast tumor)
Huntington’s (Chromosome 4) 86
AD: Progressive degeneration of caudate nucleus; putamen (striatum) & frontal cortex ↓GABA
Jacksonian Seizures 87
Epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4)
Job’s Syndrome 1
Immune deficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli
2
Defective neutrophilic chemotactic response = repeated infections
3
Commonly seen in light-skinned; red-haired girls
88
↑’d IgE levels
Kaposi Sarcoma 89
Malignant vascular tumor (HHV8 in homosexual men)
Kartagener’s Syndrome 90
Immotile cilia 2to defective dynein arms infection; situs inversus; sterility
Kawasaki Disease 91
Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in kids (acute necrotizing vasculitis of lips; oral mucosa)
Klinefelter’s Syndrome 92
47; XXY: Long arms; Sterile; Hypogonadism
Kluver-Bucy 93
Bilateral lesions of amygdala (hypersexuality; oral behavior)
Krukenberg Tumor 94
Adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells (typically originating from the stomach) metastases to
95
the ovaries
Laennec’s Cirrhosis 96
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Lesch-Nyhan 97
HGPRT deficiency
98
Gout; retardation; self-mutilation
Letterer-Siwe 99
Acute disseminated Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis
Libman-Sacks 100
Endocarditis with small vegetations on valve leaflets
101
Associated with SLE
Lou Gehrig’s 102
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons
Mallory-Weis Syndrome 103
Bleeding from esophagogastric lacerations 2to wretching (alcoholics)
Marfan’s 104
Connective tissue defect: defective Fibrillin gene Dissecting aortic aneurysm; subluxation of lenses
McArdle’s Disease 105
Type V Glycogenosis - Glycogen storage disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency = ↑Glycogen)
Meckel’s Diverticulum 106
Rule of 2’s: 2 inches long; 2 feet from the ileocecum; in 2% of the population
107
Embryonic duct origin; may have ectopic tissue: gastric/pancreatic remnant of vitteline duct/yolk stalk
Meig’s Syndrome 108
Triad: ovarian fibroma; ascites; hydrothorax – associated w/ fibroma of ovaries
Menetrier’s Disease 109
Giant hypertrophic gastritis (enlarged rugae; plasma protein loss)
Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis 110
Calcification of the media (usually radial & ulnar aa
Munchausen Syndrome 111
Factitious disorder (consciously creates symptoms; but doesn’t know why)
Nelson’s Syndrome 112
1Adrenal Cushings →surgical removal of adrenals →loss of negative feedback to pituitary →
Niemann-Pick 113
Lysosomal Storage Disease (sphingomyelinase deficiency – sphingomyelin accumulation)
114
“Foamy histiocytes”
Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome 115
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
Paget’s Disease 116
Abnormal bone architecture (thickened; numerous fractures →pain)
Pancoast Tumor 117
Bronchogenic tumor with superior sulcus involvement →Horner’s Syndrome
Parkinson’s 118
Dopamine depletion in nigrostriatal tracts
Peutz-Jegher’s Syndrome (AD) 119
Melanin pigmentation of lips; mouth; hand; genitalia + hamartomatous polyps of small intestine
Peyronie’s Disease 120
Subcutaneous fibrosis of dorsum of penis
121
1
122
1
123
Calcium-frosting; unyielding layer – heart chambers may be unable to dilate to receive blood during diastole
Plummer’s Syndrome 124
Hyperthyroidism; nodular goiter; absence of eye signs (Plummer’s = Grave’s - eye signs)
Plummer-Vinson 125
Esophageal webs & iron-deficiency anemia; spoon-shaped nails; ↑SCCA of esophagus
Pompe’s Disease 126
Type II Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease →cardiomegaly (1;4 Glucosidase deficiency: ↑
Pott’s Disease 127
Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the vertebrae
Potter’s Complex 128
Renal agenesis →oligohydramnios →hypoplastic lungs; defects in extremities
Raynaud’s 129
Disease: recurrent vasospasm in extremities = seen in young; healthy women
130
Phenomenon: 2to underlying disease (SLE or scleroderma)
Reiter’s Syndrome 131
Urethritis; conjunctivitis; arthritis non-infectious (but often follows infections); HLA-B27; polyarticular
Reye’s Syndrome 132
Microvesicular fatty liver change & encephalopathy
133
2to aspirin ingestion in children following viral illness; especially VZV
Riedel’s Thyroiditis 134
Idiopathic fibrous replacement of thyroid
Rotor Syndrome 135
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated)
136
Similar to Dubin-Johnson; but no discoloration of the liver
Sezary Syndrome 137
Leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)
Shaver’s Disease 138
Aluminum inhalation →lung fibrosis
Sheehan’s Syndrome 139
Postpartum pituitary necrosis = hemorrhage & shock usually occurred during delivery
Shy-Drager 140
Parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction & orthostatic hypotension
Simmond’s Disease 141
Pituitary cachexia – can occur from either pituitary tumors or Sheehan’s
Sipple’s Syndrome 142
MEN type IIa = pheochromocytoma; thyroid medullary CA; hyperparathyroidism
Sjogren’s Syndrome 143
Triad: dry eyes; dry mouth; arthritis ↑risk of B-cell lymphoma
Spitz Nevus 144
Juvenile melanoma (always benign)
Stein-Leventhal 145
Polycystic ovary: see amenorrhea; infertility; obesity; hirsutism = ↑↑LH secretion
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome 146
Erythema multiforme; fever; malaise; mucosal ulceration (often 2to infection = mycoplasma or sulfa
Still’s Disease 147
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (absence of rheumatoid factor)
Takayasu’s arteritis 148
Aortic arch syndrome
149
Loss of carotid; radial or ulnar pulses = pulseless disease
150
Common in young Asian females
Tay-Sachs (AR) 151
Gangliosidosis (hexosaminidase A deficiency →GM2 ganglioside) Cherry Red Spots of the Macula
Tetralogy of Fallot 152
1
Tourette’s Syndrome 153
Involuntary actions; both motor and vocal Txt w/ Pimozide
Turcot’s Syndrome 154
Colon adenomatous polyps plus CNS tumors
Turner’s Syndrome 155
45; XO = most common cause of Primary Amenorrhea
Vincent’s Infection 156
“Trench mouth” – acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis due to Fusobacterium
Von Gierke’s Disease 157
Type I Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (G6Ptase deficiency) – Glycogen accumulaiton
Von Hippel-Lindau 158
Hemangioma (or hemangioblastoma) = cerebellum; brain stem; & retina
159
Adenomas of the viscera; especially ↑Renal Cell Carcinoma
160
Chromosome 3p
Von Recklinghausen’s 161
Neurofibromatosis & café au lait spots & Lisch nodules (Chromosome 17)
Von Recklinghausen’s Disease of Bone 162
Osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”) 2to hyperparathyroidism = osteoclastic resorption w/
163
fibrous replacement
Von Willebrand’s Disease (AD) 164
Defect in platelet adhesion 2to deficiency in vWF
Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia 165
Proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells in men 50-70 yoa; PAS(+) Dutcher bodies
Wallenberg’s Syndrome 166
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) thrombosis “Medullary Syndrome”
167
Ipsilateral: ataxia; facial pain & temp; Contralateral: body pain & temp
Waterhouse-Friderichsen 168
Adrenal insufficiency 2to DIC
169
DIC 2to meningiococcemia
Weber’s Syndrome 170
Paramedian Infarct of Midbrain
171
Ipsilateral: mydriasis; Contralateral: UMN paralysis (lower face & body)
Wegener’s Granulomatosis 172
Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of paranasal sinuses; lungs; kidneys; etc
Weil’s Disease 173
Icteric Leptospirosis non-icteric prgresses to renal failure & myocarditis
174
Dark field microscopy for dx
Wermer’s Syndrome 175
MEN type I = thyroid; parathyroid; adrenal cortex; pancreatic islets; pituitary
Wernicke’s Aphasia 176
Sensory Aphasia impaired comprehension
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome 177
Thiamine deficiency in alcoholics; bilateral mamillary bodies (mediodorsal nucleua) (confusion; ataxia;
Whipple’s Disease 178
Malabsorption syndrome (with bacteria-laden macrophages) & polyarthritis
Wilson’s Disease 179
Hepatolenticular degeneration (copper accumulation [Txt w/ Penicillamine ] & decrease in ceruloplasmin)
180
Mallory Bodies in the Liver & also w/ alcoholic hepatitis & Hyaline change
181
Chromosome 13
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome 182
Immunodeficiency: combined B- &T-cell deficiency (thrombocytopenia & eczema)
183
↓IgM w/ ↑IgA
Wolff-Chaikoff Effect 184
High iodine level (−)’s thyroid hormone synthesis
Zenker’s Diverticulum 185
Esophageal; cricopharyngeal muscles above UES
Zollinger-Ellison 186
Gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas (or intestine) →↑acid →recurrent ulcers
Roger’s Disease 187
Interventricular septal defect
Barlow’s Syndrome 188
Floppy vale syndrome – women b/t 20-40 yoa
Bracht-Wachter Lesions 189
Minute abscesses found in subacute bacterial endocarditis
Lutembacher’s Syndrome 190
Combination of septum secundum atrial septal defect w/ mitral stenosis
Schmidt’s Syndrome 191
Autoimmnue thyroid Disease (Hashimoto’s ) & insulin-dependent diabetes
Hallmark Findings
Questions
Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation 192
Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Antiplatelet Antibodies 193
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly 194
Marfan’s
Aschoff Bodies 195
Rheumatic fever
Auer Rods 196
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)
Autosplenectomy 197
Sickle cell anemia: switch a glu val in chain
198
Low O2 ↑sickling
199
Aplastic crisis w/ B19 (Parvovirus ssDNA) infection
200
Salmonella osteomyelitis
201
Vaso-occlusive painful crisises
202
Hydroxyurea as Txt (↑HbF) & Bone marrow transplant
Babinski 203
UMN lesion
Basophilic Stippling of RBCs 204
Lead poisoning
Bence Jones Protein 205
Multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda)
206
Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
Birbeck Granules 207
Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Blue Bloater 208
Chronic Bronchitis (at least 3 months for at least 2 years of ecessive mucus secretion & chronic
Boot-Shaped Heart 209
Tetralogy of Fallot
Bouchard’s Nodes 210
Osteoarthritis (Proximal IP joint of the fingers)
Boutonniere’s Deformity 211
Rheumatoid arthritis flex proximal & extend distal IP joints
Brown Tumor 212
Hyperparathyroidism
Brushfield Spots 213
Down’s
Call-Exner Bodies 214
Granulosa cell tumor: associated w/ endometrial hyperplasia & carcinoma
215
Granuloma-Theca cell tumor
Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy 216
Chagas’ Disease
Chancre 217
1Syphilis
Chancroid 218
Haemophilus ducreyi
Charcot Triad 219
Multiple sclerosis = nystagmus; intention tremor; scanning speech
Charcot-Leyden Crystals 220
Bronchial asthma
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing 221
Cerebral lesion
Chocolate Cysts 222
Endometriosis
Chvostek’s Sign 223
Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany
Clue Cells 224
Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman’s Triangle 225
Osteosarcoma
Cold Agglutinins 226
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
227
Infectious mononucleosis
Condyloma Lata 228
2Syphilis
229
New coffee flavor at Bagel & Bagel
Cotton Wool Spots 230
HTN
231
Aka; cytoid bodies seen w/ SLE (yellowish cotton wool fundal lesions)
Councilman Bodies 232
Dying hepatocytes – HepB
Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule 233
Rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Currant-Jelly Sputum 234
Klebsiella
Curschmann’s Spirals 235
Bronchial asthma
Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra 236
Parkinson’s
Donovan Bodies 237
Granuloma inguinale (STD)
Eburnation 238
Osteoarthritis (polished; ivory-like appearance of bone)
Ectopia Lentis 239
Marfan’s
Erythema Chronicum Migrans 240
Lyme Disease
Fatty Liver 241
Alcoholism
Ferruginous Bodies 242
Asbestosis - & Iron laden
Ghon Focus / Complex 243
Tuberculosis (1& 2; respectively)
Glitter Cells 244
Acute Pyelonephritis
Gower’s Maneuver 245
Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand
Heberden’s Nodes 246
Osteoarthritis (Distal IP joint of the fingers)
Heinz Bodies 247
G6PDH Deficiency
Heterophil Antibodies 248
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hirano Bodies 249
Alzheimer’s
Hypersegmented PMNs 250
Megaloblastic anemia
Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs 251
Iron-deficiency anemia or Thalassemia
Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction 252
Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt
Joint Mice 253
Osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)
Kaussmaul Breathing 254
Acidosis / Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Keratin Pearls 255
Squamous Cell CA of skin Actinic Keratosis is a precursor
Keyser-Fleischer Ring 256
Wilson’s
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules 257
Diabetic nephropathy: Nodular Glomerulosclerosis nodules of mesangial matrix
Koilocytes 258
HPV 6 & 11 (condyloma acuminatum - benign) and HPV 16 & 18 (malignant association)
Koplik Spots 259
Measles
Lewy Bodies 260
Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)
Lines of Zahn 261
Arterial thrombus
Lisch Nodules 262
Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease) = pigmented iris hamartomas
Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli 263
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis – prototype of nephritic syndrome
Mallory Bodies 264
Alcoholic hepatitis
McBurney’s Sign 265
Appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
Michealis-Gutmann Bodies 266
Malakoplakia lesion on bladder due to macros & calcospherites (M-G Bodies): usually due to E
Monoclonal Antibody Spike 267
Multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)
268
MGUS
Myxedema 269
Hypothyroidism
Negri Bodies 270
Rabies
Neuritic Plaques 271
Alzheimer’s
Neurofibrillary Tangles 272
Alzheimer’s
Non-pitting Edema 273
Myxedema
274
Anthrax Toxin
Notching of Ribs 275
Coarctation of Aorta
Nutmeg Liver 276
CHF = causing congested liver
Owls Eye Cells 277
CMV
278
Reed Sternburg Cells (Hodkins Lymphoma)
279
Aschoff cells seen w/ Rheumatic Fever
Painless Jaundice 280
Pancreatic CA (head)
Pannus 281
Rheumatoid arthritis; also see morning stiffnes that ↓w/ joint use; HLA-DR4
Pautrier’s Microabscesses 282
Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma); Sezary
Philadelphia Chromosome 283
CML
Pick Bodies 284
Pick’s Disease
2 types of COPD 285
Pink Puffer – Type A: Emphysema
286
Blue Bloater – Type B: Bronchitis
287
Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Podagra 288
Gout (MP joint of hallux)
Port-Wine Stain 289
Hemangioma
Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign 290
Tearing of the ACL
Psammoma Bodies 291
Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
292
Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
293
Meningioma
294
Mesothelioma
Pseudohypertrophy 295
Seen w/ Duchenne muscular dystrophy @ the claf muscles; due to ↑fat
Punched-Out Bone Lesions 296
Multiple myeloma
Rash on Palms & Soles 297
2Syphilis
298
RMSF
299
Coxsackie virus infection: Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease
Red Morning Urine 300
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg Cells 301
Hodgkin’s Disease
Reid Index Increased 302
Chronic bronchitis = ↑d ratio of bronchial gland to bronchial wall thickness
Reinke Crystals 303
Leydig cell tumor
Rouleaux Formation 304
Multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips
S3 Heart Sound 305
L→R Shunt (VSD; PDA; ASD)
306
Mitral Regurg
307
LV Failure
S4 Heart Sound 308
Pulmonary Stenosis
309
Pulmonary HTN
Schwartzman Reaction 310
Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs
Smith Antigen 311
SLE (also anti-dsDNA)
312
Malar Rash; Wire loop kidney lesions; Joint pain; False (+) syphilis test (VDRL)
313
90% 14-45 yo females
314
also seen w/ use of INH; Procainamide; Hydralazine = SLE-like syndrome
Soap Bubble on X-Ray 315
Giant cell tumor of bone
Spike & Dome Glomeruli 316
Membranous glomerulonephritis = Nephrotic syndrome
317
Spike = basement membrane material & Dome = immune complex deposits (IgG orC3)
String Sign on X-ray 318
Crohn’s bowel wall thickening
Target Cells 319
Thalassemia in Thalassemia w/ no gene: Hydrops Fetalis & Intrauterine death associations = HbBarts
Tendinous Xanthomas 320
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Thyroidization of Kidney 321
Chronic pyelonephritis
Tophi 322
Gout
Tram-Track Glomeruli 323
Membranoproliferative GN: Nephritic syndrome – basement membrane is duplicated into 2 layers
Trousseau’s Sign 324
Visceral ca; classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)
325
Hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
326
These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs; but they unfortunately have the
same name
Virchow’s Node 327
Supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells 328
Measles
WBC Casts 329
Pyelonephritis
Whipple’s Triad 330
CNS disfunction – Hypoglycemic episodes – glu injection reverses CNS Sympt’s
Wire Loop Glomeruli 331
Lupus nephropathy; type IV (diffuse proliferative form)
332
Spina Bifida
333
Anencephaly
↑Uric Acid 334
Gout
335
Lesch Nyhan
336
Myeloproliferative Disorders
337
Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)
↓FEV1/FVC 338
COPD
339
Due to Pneumocystis carinii
340
Seen w/ Atelectasia
Honey Combing of the lung 341
Seen w/ Asbestosis (a restrictive lung disease)
Crescents 342
Goodpastures syndrome (pneumonia w/ hemoptysis & rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis)
Linear Ig Deposits 343
Goodpastures syndrome
45 Degree Branch Points 344
Aspergillosis
PAS(+) Dutcher Bodies 345
Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia = ↑IgM = Hyperviscosity
“Ground Glass” in Abdomen(Hyaline) 346
Seen in the hepatocytes of healthy carriers of HBsAg in liver biopsies
“Signet Ring” Cells 347
Cells that replace the ovaries; due to Krukenberg’s tumor that has metastasized from the
Ground Glass Appearance (Hyaline) 348
Seen w/ Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy oligodendrocytes
349
Nuclei seen in Papillary CA of the thyroid (malignant)
Congo Red 350
Shows amyloid deposition in plaques & vascular walls
Meningiomas & Progesterone 351
Some meningiomas have Progesterone receptors = rapid growth in pregnancy can occur
Tuberous Sclerosis Triad 352
Seizures; Mental retardation; Leukoderma (congenital facial white spots or macules):
Cowdry A Inclusions 353
Seen w/ Herpes Simplex Encephalitis – in oligodendroglia
Devic’s Syndrome 354
“Neuromyelitis Optica”
355
A variant of multiple sclerosis: rapid demyelination of the optic nerve & spinal cord w/ paraplegia
c-erb B2 356
Breast Cancer association
Foster-Kennedy Syndrome 357
A tumor causing blindness & loss of smell w/ papilloedema
Hoffman’s Sign 358
Flicking of the middle finger’s nail
Red Nucleus Destruction 359
Intention tremors of the arm
Ventral Spinocerebellar tr
360
Dorsal Spinocerebellar tr
361
Cuneocerebellar tr
362
Dorsal Column 363
Conscious proprioception of the body
Lateral Spinothalamic tr
364
Ventral Spinothalamic tr
365
SVA 366
Taste & Smell
GSE 367
Muscles of the eye & of the tongue
SSA 368
Vision; Hearing; Equilibrium
GVA 369
Sensation of tongue; soft palate
GVE 370
Edinger Westphal = parasympathetic eye innervation
371
Gland innervation = secretions
372
Viscera
GSA 373
Pain & temperature of face
374
Sensation of external ear
SVE 375
Innervation of muscles of masticaiton; facial expressions; larynx & pharynx
LMN Lesion 376
Werndig Hoffman (progressive infantile muscular atrophy)
377
Poliomyelitis
Sensory Pathway Lesion 378
Subacute Combined Degeneration = Friedrich’s Ataxia = B12 deficiency
379
Tabes Dorsalis (Neurosyphilis)
Both UMN & LMN Lesion 380
ALS = Lou Gherig’s Disease
Both Sensory & Motor Lesion 381
Brown Sequard
382
Anterior Spinal artery Occlusion
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus 383
Controls circadian rhythm
Ventromedial Nucleus 384
Satiety center
Lateral Nucleus 385
Induces eating
Arcuate Nucleus 386
Releases PIF (dopa-ergic neurons)
Mamillary Body 387
Can have hemorrhages as seen in Wernicke’s Encephalopathy
Acanthocytes 388
RBSc w/ spiny projections
Most Common…
Questions
389
Osteosarcoma
Adrenal Medullary Tumor – Adults 390
Pheochromocytoma: 5 P’s: ↑Pressure; Pain (Headache); Perspiration; Palpitations;
391
Neuroblastoma
Agent of severe viral encephalitis 392
Herpes simplex
Aggressive lung tumor 393
Small cell or oat cell
Associated with gallstones 394
Adenocarinoma
Bacterial Meningitis – adults 395
Strep pneumoniae & in young adults = Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial Meningitis – elderly 396
Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial Meningitis – newborns 397
E
Bacterial Meningitis – toddlers 398
Hib
399
Papilloma
Benign fallopian tube tumor 400
Adenomatoid
Benign ovarian tumor 401
Mature(Native) Teratoma = benign dermatoid
Benign tumor of soft tissue 402
Lipoma
Benign tumor of the breast <25yoa 403
Fibroadenoma
Benign tumor of the liver 404
Hemangioma
Benign tumor of the vulva 405
Hidroadenoma
Benign uterine tumor 406
Leiomyoma: estrogen sinsitive: changes size during pregnancy & menopause
Bone Tumors 407
Metasteses from Breast & Prostate
Brain Tumor – Child 408
Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Brain Tumor –Adult 409
Astrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: mets; meningioma; Schwannoma
Breast Carcinoma 410
Invasive Duct Carcinoma
Breast Mass 411
Fibrocystic Change: premenopausic women (Carcinoma is the most common in post-menopausal
Bug in Acute Endocarditis 412
Staph aureus
413
Klebsiella
Bug in Epiglottitis 414
Hib
Bug in GI Tract 415
Bacteroides (2nd – E
416
Staph aureus
Bug in PID 417
N
Bug in Subacute Endocarditis 418
Strep Viridans
CA of urinary collecting system 419
Transitional cell CA (assoc
Cardiac 1ry Tumor – Adults 420
Myxoma: “Ball Valve”
Cardiac 1ry Tumor – Child 421
Rhabdomyoma – associated w/ Tuberous sclerosis
Cardiac Tumor – Adults 422
Metasteses
Cardiomyopathy 423
Dilated (Congestive) Cardiomyopathy: Alcohol; BeriBeri; Cocaine use; Coxsackie B; Doxorubicin
424
Systolic Dysfunction
Cause of 2ry HTN 425
Renal Disease
Cause of Addison’s 426
Autoimmune (2nd – infection)
Cause of breast lumps 427
CA of the breast
Cause of chronic endometriosis 428
TB
429
21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: NaCl lost & Hypotension (then; 11- NaCl retention & HTN)
Cause of Cushings 430
Exogenous Steroid Therapy (then; 1ry ACTH; Adrenal Adenoma; Ectopic ACTH)
Cause of Death in Alzheimer pts 431
Pneumonia
Cause of Death in Diabetics 432
MI
Cause of Death in premature 433
NRDS = hyaline membrane disease
SLE pts
434
Lupus Nephropathy Type IV (Diffuse Proliferative) = Renal Disease
Cause of Dementia 435
Alzheimer’s
436
Multi-Infarct Dementia
Cause of Dwarfism 437
Achondroplasia
Cause of Food poisoning 438
Staph aureus
Cause of Hematosalpynga 439
Ectopic pregnancy
Cause of Hypoparathyroidism 440
Throidectomy
Cause of Hypothyroidism 441
Corrective surgery I31 treatment
Cause of Kidney infections 442
E
Cause of Liver disease in US 443
Alcohol consumption
Cause of Malignancy in children 444
Acute leukemia
Cause of Mental retardation 445
Down’s
446
Fragile X
447
21 hydroxylase deficiency
Cause of PID 448
N
Cause of Portal cirrhosis 449
Alcohol
Cause of Preventable Blindness 450
Chlamydia (serotypes A;B;Ba;C)
Cause of Pulmonary HTN 451
COPD
Cause of Secondary Hypertension 452
Renal disease
Cause of SIADH 453
Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Cause of UT Obstruction in men 454
BPHyperplasia
Cause Pernicious Anemia 455
Chronic atrophic gastritis = no production of intrinsic factor
Chromosomal Disorder 456
Down’s
Common Tumor of the Appendix 457
Carcinoid tumor: flushing; diarrhea; bronchospasm; RHeart valvular lesions
458
Txt: Methysergide (5HT antagonist)
Congenital Cardiac Anomaly 459
VSD (membranous > muscular)
Congenital Early Cyanosis 460
Tetralogy of Fallot =right to left shunt
Coronary Artery Thrombosis 461
LAD artery: MI
Demyelinating Disease 462
Multiple Sclerosis: (Charcot Triad = nystagmus; intention tremor; scanning speech)
463
Periventricular plaques w/ ↓Oligodenrocytes
464
↑IgG in CSF; Optic Neuritis; MLF Syndorme = Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia; bladder
Dental Tumor 465
Odontoma
Dietary Deficiency 466
Iron
Disease of the Breast 467
Fibrocystic disease
468
CMV (Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall)
Esophageal Cancer 469
SCCA
Fallopian Tube Malignancy 470
AdenoCA
471
Cystic Fibrosis (chromosome 7q)
Female Tumor 472
Leimyoma
Form of Amyloidosis 473
Immunologic (Bence Jones protein in multiple myeloma is also called the Amyloid Light Chain)
Form of Tularemia 474
Ulceroglandular
Germ Cell Tumor of Testes 475
Seminoma (analogous to dysgerminoma of ovaries)
Gynecological Malignancy 476
Endometrial Carcinoma
Gynecological Finding 477
Endometrial CA
Heart Murmur 478
Mitral Valve Prolapse
479
Mitral
480
Tricuspid
481
Mitral then Aortic
Hereditary Bleeding Disorder 482
Von Willebrand’s Disease
483
Prolactin
Inherited disease of the Kidney 484
Adult polycystic kidney disease: associated w/ polycystic liver; Berry aneurysms; Mitral prolapse
485
APD1 – chromosome 16
Intracranial tumor in adults 486
Glioblastoma mulitforme
Islet Tumor 487
Insulinoma = cell tumor
Liver 1ry Tumor 488
Hepatoma
Liver Disease 489
Alcoholic Liver Disease
490
Head (99%)
Location of Adult Brain Tumors 491
Above Tentorium
492
Below Tentorium
Lung Tumor; malignant or benign 493
Malignant
Lung Tumor; primary or secondary 494
Secondary
Lysosomal Storage Disease 495
Gaucher’s
Malignancy in Women 496
Lung (2nd breast)
Malignancy of the Larynx 497
Glottic CA (squamous cell)
Malignancy of the Small Intestine 498
Adenocarcinoma
Malignancy Vulva 499
Squamous cell CA
Malignant Eye Tumor in Kids 500
Retinoblastoma
Malignant Tumor of the Liver 501
Hepatocellular CA
Motor Neuron Disease 502
ALS
Muscular Dystrophy 503
Duchenne’s: Dystrophin deletion
Nasal Tumor 504
Squamous cell CA
Neoplasm – Child 505
Leukemia
506
Medulloblastoma of brain (cerebellum)
Neoplasm of the West 507
Adeno CA of the rectum and/or colon
Neoplastic Polyp 508
Tubular adenoma
Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults 509
Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic Syndrome in Children 510
Minimal Change (Lipoid Nephrosis) Disease (responds well to steroid txt)
Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 511
Follicular small clear cell
512
Lung CA
Skin tumor 513
Basal cell CA
Opportunistic infection in AIDS 514
PCP
Ovarian Malignancy 515
Serous Cystadenocarcinoma
Ovarian Tumor 516
Hamartoma
Pancreatic Tumor 517
Adeno (usually in the head)
518
ALL – Child / CLL – Adult over 60 / AML - Adult over 60 / CML – Adult 35-50
Patient with Goodpasture’s 519
Young male
Patient with Reiter’s 520
Male
Pituitary Tumor 521
Prolactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma)
522
Mid 1/3
Place for Peptic Ulcer Disease 523
Lesser curvuture in antrum – associated w/ blood group O
Primary Benign Salivary Tumor 524
Pleomorphic Adenoma (Mixed) – 90% localized to the parotid
Primary Hyperparathyroidism 525
Adenomas (followed by: hyperplasia; then carcinoma)
Primary Malignancy of Bone 526
Osteosarcoma
527
Lymphoma
Pt
with Hodgkin’s 528
Pt
with Minimal Change Disease 529
Renal Malignancy 530
Renal cell CA
531
Wilm’s tumor (neohroblastoma) – chromosome 11p
Salivary Tumor 532
Pleomorphic adenoma
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism 533
Hypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure
Sexually Transmitted Disease 534
Chlamydia (sero types D-K)
Site of Diverticula 535
Sigmoid Colon
Site of Embolic Occlusion 536
Middle cerebral aa: contralateral paralysis; aphasias; motor & sensory loss
Site of Metastasis 537
Regional Lymph Nodes
538
Liver
Sites of Atherosclerosis 539
Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Skin CA of Fair Skinned People 540
Malignant melanoma
Skin Cancer 541
Basal Cell Carcinoma
542
Meckel’s diverticulum
Stomach Cancer 543
Adeno – associated w/ blood group A
Testicular Tumor 544
Seminoma = malignant painless testes growth
Thyroid Anomaly 545
Thryoglossal duct cyst
Thyroid CA 546
Papillary CA
Tracheoesophageal Fistula 547
Lower esophagus joins trachea / upper esophagus – blind pouch – polyhydramnios association
Tumor in men <20 548
Germ cell tumor
Tumor of Infancy 549
Benign vascular tumor = port wine stain = Hemangioma
550
CA of stomach (adeno CA)
Type of Hodgkin’s 551
Mixed Cellularity (versus: lymphocytic predominance; lymphocytic depletion; nodular sclerosis)
Type of Non-Hodgkin’s 552
Follicular; small cleaved
Type of Portal Cirrhosis 553
Micronodular
554
Rhabdomyosarcoma
555
Temporal Arteritis (branch of Carotid Artery)
Viral Encephalitis 556
HSV
Worm Infection in US 557
Pinworm (2nd – Ascaris)
Worst Prognosis in Thyroid Cas 558
Follicular CA
Cause of Lobar Pneumonia 559
Strep
Cause of Death b/t 24-44 yoa 560
AIDS
561
Pseudomonas
562
Pseudomonas
Cause of Infection in Burn Pts 563
Pseudomonas
Mental Problem in Males 564
Specific phobia
Intelligence Test 565
Stanford Binet (ages 6 & under)
566
WIPSI (ages 4-6)
567
WISK-R (for ages 6-17)
568
WAIS-R (for > 17 yoa)
Paraphilia 569
Pedophilia
570
VMA: vanillylmandelic acid (NE metabolite)
Severe Shigella 571
Dysenteriae
572
Strep
Cause of a Solitary Brain Abscess 573
A
U
S
574
Campylobacter jejuni
Shigella Type 575
S
576
Chlamydia trichomonas
Pneumonia 577
Strep
Urethritis 578
N
Cause of Glomerulonephritis 579
IgA Nephropathy = Berger’s Disease
Cause of Viral Pneumonia 580
RSV – infants
581
Parainfluenza – kids
582
Influenza virus – adults
583
Adeno virus – military recruits
Complication of COPD 584
Pulmonary infections
585
Renal failure
Atrial Septal Defect 586
Ostium Secundum Type
Warm Antibody 587
Most common form of immune hemolytic anemia
588
IgG auto antibodies to RBC
589
See spherocytosis; (+) Coombs’ test; complication to CLL
Immunodeficiency 590
IgA Deficiency
Congenital GIT Anomaly 591
Meckel’s Diverticulum: persistence of vitelline duct/yolk sac stalk
Cause of Congenital Malformation 592
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Pharmacology
Autonomic Nervous System
Epinephrine 1
1; 2; 1; 2
Norepinephrine 2
1; 2; 1 (no 2 activity)
GABA 3
Causes an inhibitory cell hyperpolarization
Muscarinic-r 4
Uses DAG & IP3 as 2nd messengers
5
Parasympathetic control
Bethanechol 6
Cholinergic
Pilocarpine 7
Cholinergic
8
Txt acute glaucoma
Isoflurophate 9
Organophosphate
Pralidoxime 10
“2PAM”
Neostigmine 11
Reversible acetylcholinesterase (-)r
12
Txt Myasthenia Gravis
Myasthenia Gravis 13
Anitbodies to Ach-r
Tubocurium 14
Nondepol
15
Prevents Ach binding but does not activate NMJ
16
↑Histamine release= ↓BP & ↑bronchospasm
Trimethaphan 17
Nonselectively binds N-r of the PS- and SNS
Pancurium 18
More potent than tubocurium w/o histamine release
Succinylcholine 19
Depol
20
Opens Na Ch
1 & Eye 21
Mydriasis due to norepinephrine
M-r & Eye 22
Miosis due to Ach
Sympathetic 23
Post ganglionic symapthetic fibers releases norepinephrine
Parasym
24
M3-r & Eye 25
Contracts sphincter = miosis
M2-r & Heart 26
Negative chronotropy: ↓HR = vagal arrest
27
Negative inotropy: ↓contractility
M3-r & Lung 28
Bronchospasm ↑secretions
M3-r & GI 29
↑motility (cramps & diarrhea)
Tacrine 30
Acetylcholine esterase (-)r
Atropine 31
DOC w/ vagal arrest
Glycoperrolate 32
M-r(-)
Pirenzepine 33
M-r(-)
Doxacurium 34
Most potent competitive non-depol NMJ (-)r
release
bungarotoxin 35
Prevent the releasal of Ach from vesicles @ the pre synaptic nerve ending
bungarotoxin 36
Irreversible N-r (-)r = ↓action potentials
1 & Eye 37
Contracts radial muscle = mydriasis (pupil dilation)
1 & Arterioles 38
Constiction: ↑TPR = ↑Diastolic pressure = ↑Afterload
1 & Venules 39
Constriction: ↑Venous return = ↑Preload
1 & Sex Function 40
Ejaculation
↑Diastolic 41
↑1 = ↑TPR
↓Diastolic 42
↑2; Direct acting vasodilators; (+)Cholinergics
1 & Heart 43
(+)chronotropism = ↑HR
44
(+)inotropism = ↑contractility; ↑SV; ↑CO; ↑O2 consumption
45
↑conduction velocity
Phenylephrine 46
1 (+) Nasal decongestant
2(+) Asma Drugs 47
Metaproterenol; Albuterol; Terbutaline; Ritodrine; Salmeterol
Ritodrine/Turbutaline 48
Relaxes myometrium used in pre-mature labor pains
Phentolamine 49
Epi reversal
50
Txt pheochromocytoma = ↓BP
Terazosin 51
Txt BPH
Yohimbine 52
↑sympathetic outflow = 2 (-)
Cardioselective NMJ 53
Pancuronium = ↑HR due to atropine-like anti muscarinic vagolytic effect & Gallamine (-)r
Ecothiophate 54
Irreversible cholinesterase (-)r
Pyridostigmine 55
Cholinomimetic that ↑s M & N-r effects
56
DOC for the oral Txt of MG
Cardio
pharm
Digoxin 1
↓AV nodal conduction/ inh
Diltiazem 2
Txt black men
Quinidine 3
↓AV nodal conduction
Verapamil 4
↓AV nodal conduction
Propranolol 5
↓AV nodal conduction
Melitus via 2 block
Diazoxide 6
Balanced vasodilator
Niroprusside 7
Balanced vasodilator
Reserpine 8
Txt severe & resistant HTN
Dobutamine 9
At high doses 2(+) offsets 1 = 1 ↑CO w/o systemic vascular resistance
Dopamine 10
At low doses Txt Shock= dilates renal and mesenteric aa= maintain urine output
Esmolol 11
Short acting (-)
Captopril 12
Balanced vasodilator
Digoxin 13
Txt CHF & Atrial Flutter - inotropic - ↓K+ levels= dig
Dig
Toxicity 14
Quinidine 15
ClassIa anti arrhythmic
Lidocaine 16
ClassIb anit arrhythmic
Flecanide 17
ClassIc anti arrhythmic
Amiodarone 18
Long t1/2= need potent doses to obtain desired level for action
Pulmonary Fibrosis
NE 19
↑AV nodal conduction via 1
Ach 20
↓AV nodal conduction via M receptor
Atenolol 21
Controls catecholamine induced arrhythmias
Bretylium 22
Txt Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias but causes passing catecholamine release that can
Nimodipine 23
Txt Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage by preventing post hemorrhagic vasospasm
Atropine 24
↓excess vagal tone as seen in Sinus Bradycardia
Nitrates 25
↓preload= venous pooling
Propranolol 26
Blocks reflex tachy but causes excess brady= ↑diastole time= ↑EDV
Verapamil 27
↑O2 supply via ↓in vasospasm Txt Prinzmetal’s variant angina
Aspirin 28
Prevents arterial platelet adhesion (not DVThrombi)
Warfarin 29
(-)Vit
Heparin 30
Dependent on Antithrombin III activation
TPA 31
Binds to fibrin clots & activates plasminogen on the spot
32
Does not discriminate b/t fibrin-based clots= bleeding & stroke complications arise
Streptokinase 33
From bacteria= allergies arise
Urokinase 34
Human source
Colestipol 35
Bile acid sequestrants
MOA
Lovastatin 36
HMGCoA reductase(-)= ↑LDL-r synthesis
Losartan 37
↓Aldosterone
Diazoxide 38
Txt insulinomas
Clonidine 39
Central 2(+)
Methyldopa 40
Central 2(+)
Phenytoin 41
ClassIb
Procainamide 42
ClassIa
Indopamide 43
Only Thiazide that will have no effect on cholesterol levels
Thiazides 44
Older black men w/ HTN due to ↑Renin
(-) 45
Young white men w/o asthma (cause bronchospasm)
ACEIs 46
(-) change AI AII
47
Cause renal failure = use w/ caution in the elderly
Epinephrine 48
↑contraction rate & force via 1
49
↑systolic but ↓diastolic BP
50
↓peripheral resistance via 2 vasodilaiton
Norepi
51
52
↑peripheral blood vessel resistance
Methyldopa 53
DOC for pregnancy induced HTN
Quinidine pre-txt 54
Atrial arrhythmia pretxt w/ a drug that will ↓ventricular response: Dig
ClassII 55
(-) ↓risk fo reinfarction & sudden death following MI
“Gray man” 56
Amiodarone: ClassIII antiarrhythmia
Beperidil 57
Ca Ch(-)
ACEIs 58
Vasodilate renal efferents > than afferent arterioles: ↓GFR & Filtration pressure
59
↓Diabetic renal failure progression
Adenosine 60
Its receptor is blocked by Methylxanthines (ie… Theophyline)
61
Favored for the Txt of Reentrant Supra Ventricular Tachycardia
Enoxaparin 62
Low molecular weight heparin = Oral anticoagulant
Isoproterenol 63
↑HR & ↓MAP
Variant angina 64
Use Ca Ch
Contraindicated in CHF 65
(-)r = you don’t want to ↓the heart’s pumping strength
CNS
questions
“TOM” 1
Short –acting BDZs:
2
Triazolam
3
Onazelam
4
Midazolam
Butyrophenone 5
Haloperidol & Droperidol
Atypical D4 6
Clozapine – Thioridazine – Olanzepine – Risperidone = Do not cause EPS
Flumazenil 7
BDZ antidote for OD
Methylphenidate 8
Txt attention deficit disorder
Phenytoin 9
Causes aplastic anemia/ gingival hyperplasia/ cleft lip & palate
Thiopental 10
Short acting Barb
Carbamazepine 11
DOC trigeminal neuralgia
Atypical D4-r 12
Thioridazine; Olamzapine; Clozapine
Pimozide 13
Txt Tourette’s
Risperidone 14
Good for negative symptoms
Thioridazine 15
Most anti cholinergic neuroleptic
Haloperidol 16
Neuroleptic malignant hyperthermia due to chronic D2 block
Imirpamine 17
Enurisis
Clomirpramine 18
Txt OCD See aggressive behavior w/ use
Trazadone 19
Priapism
Bupropion 20
Helps to quit smoking
SSRIs 21
Primarily used for OCD
Fluoxetine 22
Good for negative symptoms
Phenelzine 23
Irreversible MAOI
Lithium 24
Txt manic phase of Bipolar Disorder
25
Causes goiter by (-) conversion of T4 to T3
26
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
27
Low salt diet will lead to Li toxicity
Alprazolam 28
DOC stage fright
Propranolol 29
Social phobia
-r 30
Spinal analgesia
-r 31
Supraspinal analgesia
Morphine & O2 32
Admin
breathing
Morphine 33
↑ICP = do not give to pt
Morphine OD 34
1
Meperidine 35
Anesthetic used during labor
Hydromorphone 36
(+) used in renal failure
Tramadol 37
Ambulatory txt for mod
Naloxone 38
Txt opioid OD
Pentazocine 39
Part (+) & part (-)
Butorphenol 40
Part (+) & part (-)
Nalbuphene 41
Part (+) & part (-)
↓GABA 42
↓seizure focus= Barbs & BDZs
↓Fast Na Ch
43
Methoxyflurane 44
Can be nephrotoxic
Enflurane 45
Can cause tonic/clonic muscle spasms
Isoflurane 46
Can cause bronchospasm
Halothane 47
Can cause ventricular extrasystoles & Malignant hyperthermia & Hepatitis
Nitric Oxide 48
No effect on HR
Thiopental 49
Short acting Barb
Kentamine 50
Dissociative anesthetic
Droperidol 51
Can be used in combo w/ Fentanyl for neuroleptoanalgesic effect
52
Neuroleptic tranquilizer
Fentanyl 53
Can be used on combo w/ Droperidol for neuroleptoanalgesic effect
54
Used transdermally for chronic pain
Midazolam 55
Pre anesthetic
Primidone 56
Biotransformed to Phenobarb
C & A delta Fibers 57
First fibers to be blocked w/ anesthesia
Esters 58
Procaine; Tetracaine; Benzocaine
59
Broken down and make PABA (allergen)
Amides 60
Lidocaine; Mepivaciane; Bupivaciane; Etidocaine= “i” before “caine” always an amide
61
Metabolized in the liver
Amphetamine 62
DA reuptake (-)’r
Bromocriptine 63
D2(+)
Benztropine 64
Ant M w/ some DA reuptake (-)
Amantidine 65
↓DA reuptake
Diphenhydramine 66
Txt early Parkinson’s stages
Pergolide 67
> Effective & longer acting than Bromocriptine
Ethosuximide 68
DOC for Absence seizures
Tranylcypromine 69
MAOI = antidepressant
SSRI & MAOI 70
Fatal combo; especially seen with the use of Paroxetine or Fluoxetine (SSRIs) and
Labor opioids 71
Meperidine & Nalbuphine
Desipramine causes 72
Sudden cardaic death in children
Anti-Infective
questions
Primaquine 4
Malaria profylaxis
5
Used for extraerythrocytic forms Plasmodium vivax or P
Ciporfloxacin 6
Quinolone derivative
Sulfonamides 7
PABA structural analogs
8
Inhibit Folic acid synthesis
9
Should not be used in anuric pt due to production of (-) Nitrogen balance & ↑d BUN levels
10
Doxycycline is the exception
Ceftriazone 11
3rd generation cephalosporin
12
DOC for bacterial meningitis in kids (ie… HiB)
13
One dose txt of gonorrhea
Hepatic coma DOC 14
Neomycin (aminoglycoside) – it supresses the normal flora = ↓g NH4 production = ↓g free
nitrogen levels in the bloodstream
Clavulanic acid 15
Irreversible (-)r of lactamases; but ot of transpeptidase = use w/ a lactamase sensitive
Piperacillin 16
Txt Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella
17
Broad spectrum antibiotic
Streptomycin (aminoglycoside) 18
Txt Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Isoniazid 19
Most commonly used drug for TB
20
Usually combined w/ Rifampin and/or Ethambutol
21
Pre Txt w/ Pyridoxine (Vit B6) can prevent peripheral neuritis‘
Pyrantel Pamoate 22
Txt of Hookworm disease
23
Depolarizing NMJ (-)r
Buy “AT” 30; “CELL” at 50 24
A = Aminoglycosides
25
T = Tetracyclines
26
C = Chloramphenicol
27
E = Erythromycin (macrolide)
28
L = Clindamycin
29
L = Lincomycin
Cefoxitin 30
Txt intraabdominal infections (ie… w/ Bacteroides fragilis)
31
Traditional txt has been Clindamycin & Gentamycin
Chloramphenicol 32
Broad spectrum antibiotic
33
Bone marrow depression (common) – Aplastic anemia (rare)
34
Gray baby syndrome (chloramphenicol cannot be conjugated)
35
DOC Typhoid Fever (symptomatic Salmonella infection)
36
DOC HiB meningitis in kids – especially resistant strain to ampicillin
Nifurtimox 37
Txt trypanosomiasis
Metronidazole 38
Txt Leishmaniasis & Amebiasis
39
Good for anaerobic bacteria = Bacteroides fragilis
40
DOC Trichomoniasis
41
DOC Giardia lamblia
Txt P
carinii 42
Tetracycline 43
Txt of Brucellosis & Cholera
44
Txt Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
45
Txt spirochete infections = Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
TMP-SMX 46
(-) dihydrofolate reductase activity
Benzathine Penicillin G 47
Long duration of action = given once every 3-4 weeks for Txt of Syphilis
Praziquantel 48
Txt Schistosomiasis (trematode [fluke] infections)
Melarsoprol 49
Txt Trypanosomiasis that has neurological symptoms
Stibogluconate 50
Txt Leishmaniasis
Fluconazole 51
Txt fungal encephalitis
Amphotericin B 52
Polyene antifingal
Ketoconazole MOA 53
(-) fungal ergosterol synthesis = disrupts membrane
Griseofulvin MOA 54
Accumulates in keratinized layers of the skin = used in dermatomycoses infections
Mefloquine 55
Anti malarial
56
Txt Chloroquine resistant strains = P
Chloroquine 57
Txt for Malaria when inside RBC
Nifurtimox 58
DOC Chagas disease due to Trypanosoma cruzi
Erythromycin 59
Used in pts allergic to penicillins
Nystatin 60
Topical txt of superficial mycotic infections = Candidiasis
Acyclovir 61
Guanine analog
62
Txt Herpes infections
Imipenem 63
Used w/ Cilastatin
64
Can cause seizures
Cefoperazone side effects 65
Bleeding due to vit K level alterations
66
Contraindicated in pts w/ bleeding disorders
Vancomycin 67
Used for MRSS (methicillin resistant Staph
68
“Red neck”: due to histamine release causes facial flushing
Meropenem 69
used w/ Cilastatin
70
Does not cause seizures (cf w/ Imipenem)
Nafcillin 71
Only penicillin that does not need dose adjustment in renal impairment
Peripheral neuropathy 72
Seen w/ use of:
73