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134 Cards in this Set

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What are 3 reasons that good nutrition for animals is important?
Good nutrtion provides animal with maximum health ability, maxium life longevity, and maximum productivity.
What are 3 energy producing nutrients?
Energy producing nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
What are common carbohydrate sources?
Carbohydrate sources include grains, some vegetables, fruits, and potatoes.
What are the characteristics of carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are a combination of sugars, starches, and fibers, are the energy source that provides immediate energy, and unused portions are stored as fats.
What are the characteristics of proteins?
Proteins are harder to digest than carbohydrates, they are made up of 21 amino acids, and once broken down by body unused portions are stored as fat.
What are common protein sources?
Protein sources include meat, eggs, and legumes.
What are characteristics of fats?
Fat products are built from fatty acids which are the building block of fats, and fats aid in absorption of fat soluble vitamins.
What are non-energy producing nutrients?
Non-energy producing nutrients are water and minerals.
At what percentage of dehydration is life no longer viable?
Life is no longer viable when animal is over 15% dehydrated.
In which order does the body break down energy producing nutrients?
The body will first break down fats, followed by carbs, and then proteins.
What are the 4 functions of water?
Functions of water are: hydrolysis, solvent and suspending media, lubricant, and coolant.
What are the 2 types of minerals?
Two types of minerals are abundant and trace.
What are characteristics of minerals?
Minerals play an important part in maintaining homeostasis of the body, and cannot be manufactured by body so must be ingested in diet.
What are 6 of the abundant minerals?
Macrominerals include: salt, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, calcium, and sulfur.
What are 10 of the trace minerals?
Microminerals include: zinc, selenium, iodine, fluorine, chromium, copper, iron, silicon, molybendum, and cobalt.
What are 6 of the most important minerals?
Important abundant minerals are calcium, phosphorous, sodium chloride, and potassium, and important trace minerals are iron and selenium.
What are mineral sources found?
Some minerals are found naturally, but for the most part must be obtained commercially in purchased foods or mineral blocks.
What is "tying up"?
"Tying up" is a treatment in large animals using selenium and Vitamin E.
What are the 2 forms of vitamins?
Vitamins are either fat soluble or water soluble.
What are 4 of the fat soluble vitamins.
Fat soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K.
In which form of vitamin is it either for an animal to suffer from the condition of hypervitaminosis?
Hypervitaminosis is more prone to occur with fat soluble vitamins rather than water soluble vitamins.
What are 3 parts of vitamin C?
Parts of vitamin C are niacin, folic acid, and ascorbic acid.
What are 5 water soluble vitamins?
Water soluble vitamins include vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, and C.
What is the role of vitamin A?
Vitamin A aids in vision, health of epithelial cells, and plays a role in immune system and reproduction.
What is the role of Vitamin D?
Vitamin D is vital to absorption of calcium and phosphorous, and plays a role in immune system.
What is the role of vitamin E?
Vitamin E is an antioxidant, and is important to nervous system, reproduction, and immunity.
What is the role of vitamin K?
Vitamin K aids in blood clotting.
What is the role of thymine?
Vitamin B1 is vital to carbohydrate metabolism.
What is the role of riboflavin?
Vitamin B2 is vital to carbohydrate metabolism.
What is the role of pyroxidine?
Vitamin B6 is important to nerve cell function.
What is the role of cobalamin?
Vitamin B12 aids in formation of red blood cells.
What is the role of niacin?
Niacin plays a role in metabolizing carbohydrates and proteins.
What is the role of folic acid?
Folic acid is important in production of amino acids which are the building blocks of protein.
What is the role of ascorbic acid?
Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant and aids in production of collagen.
What are 2 important factors in properly feeding commercial pet foods?
Commercial pet foods must be consumed in adequate amounts and should meet but not exceed requirements of animal.
What information is listed on the principal display panel on commercial pet food?
The principal display panel lists namer, statement of intent, net weight, and slogan.
How long can a slogan, or information bursts or flags be used on a commercial pet food?
A slogan, or information burst or flag can only be used for 6 months.
What are 5 items listed on the information panel?
The information panel contains the ingredient list, guaranteed analysis, percent dry matter, nutrition statement, and feeding trial data.
What are advantages to using dry commercial food?
Dry commercial food is least expensive, usually contains greatest amount of nutrients per unit, and has an abrasive effect on teeth.
What are disadvantages to using dry commercial food?
Disadvantes to using dry commercial food are that they are not as attractived to palate, only dry ingredients can be used in their manufacture, has shortest shelf life, and high fat contents and exposure to air increases likelihood of spoilage.
What are the advantages to using canned commercial food?
Canned commercial food is much more palatable and any type of ingredient can be used.
What are the disadvantages to using canned food?
Canned food is expensive, contains a high water content, can be visually deceptive in content, and many times to nutritionall complete or balanced.
What are the advantages for using moist food?
Moist food needs no refrigeration, has a relatively long shelf life, is attractive and palatable, and is highly digestible.
What are the disadvantages to using moist food?
Moist food is more expensive than dry, contains a lot of acids which can throw off pH balance, and uses corn syrups and salts as a preservative.
What is a common preservative in moist foods?
Propylene glycol is used frequently as a preservative to keep food from drying out.
What is the difference between premium and commonly available commercial foods?
Premium foods have a fixed formula, using the same ingredients and same amounts in manufacture each time, while commercial foods vary and ingredients are bought for quantity not quality.
What are 6 factors affecting life stage feeding?
Factors to consider in life stage feeding include: age, pregnancy, lactation, physical activity, environmental factors, and illness.
At what point in pregnancy are energy needs increased?
Energy needs are increased during last trimester of pregnancy.
When do energy needs commonly increase?
Energy needs increase with younger animals, during last trimester of pregnancy, during lactation, when consistently physically active, during cold weather, and when ill.
When are cats and dogs considered seniors?
Cats are considered seniors at 8 years of age, while dogs are considered seniors at 6 years of age.
What are the advantages to using meal time feedings?
Meal time feedings regulate food amounts, owner is able to monitor how much animal is eating, smaller amounts are better digested, and is less expensive.
What are the disadvantages to using meal time feedings?
The disadvantage to using meal time feedings is that it is more work for owner.
What are the advantages to using ad lib or free choice feeding?
Ad lib feeding is more convenient for the owner.
What are the disadvantages of using ad lib feedings?
Ad lib feedings are more expensive, owner is unable to monitor eating habits, and pet is more likely to become obese.
What are 4 common mistakes that may arise in relation to feeding felines?
Felines require twice the amount of protein and twice the amount of vitamin B complex, do not require iron supplementation, and are true carnivores.
What types of foods should be consumed for lasting energy, and which types of foods should be consumed for fast energy?
High protein content provides lasting energy, and high carbohydrate content provides fast energy.
What are the primary uses in feeding K/D Kidney Diet?
K/D Kidney Diet is used most often in geriatric patients, as well as for cases of CHF or liver disease or renal failure.
What are the characteristics of K/D Kidney Diet?
K/D Kidney Diet is low in protein and sodium, high in fiber, and is meat and soy free.
What are the primary uses of feeding H/D Heart Diet?
H/D Heart Diet is used for CHF and liver disease.
What are the characteristics of H/D Heart Diet?
H/D Heart Diet is low in sodium and is soy free.
What are the primary uses in feeding U/D Urinary Diet?
U/D Urinary Diet is used for advanced renal failure, liver disease, as well as recent conditions of urolithisis.
What are the characteristics of U/D Urinary Diet?
U/D Urinary Diet is low in protein and minerals, and increased vitamin content.
What are the primary uses in feeding S/D Stone Diet?
S/D Stone Diet is mainly used for reduction of urinary stones, by increasing water intake and diluting urine to break stones apart.
What are the characteristics of S/D Stone Diet?
S/D Stone Diet is low in protein and minerals with increased levels of sodium to increase thirst.
What is another name for S/D Stone Diet?
S/D Stone Diet is also known as struvite diet.
What is the primary use for feeding G/D Geriatric Diet?
G/D Geriatric Diet is used for geriatric canines.
What are the characteristics of G/D Geriatric Diet?
G/D Geriatric Diet has moderate fat, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, and sodium, with increased fiber and vitamin content.
What are the primary uses for feeding P/D Puppy Diet?
P/D Puppy Diet is used for animals going thru stages of growth and lactation, as well as emaciated and anorexic patients.
What are the characteristics of P/D Puppy Diet?
P/D Puppy Diet is very palatable, has increased protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals, with decreased carbohydrates.
What are the principal uses of feeding R/D Reducing Diet?
R/D Reducing Diet is used for weight control, as well as for constipated animals.
What are the characteristics of R/D Reducing Diet?
R/D Reducing Diet is high in fiber which decreases time for absorption of fats, and decreased fats and carbohydrates.
What is the primary use for feeding I/D Intestinal Diet?
I/D Intestinal Diet is used for gastrointestinal disturbances due to its bland content.
What are the characteristics of I/D Intestinal Diet?
I/D Intestinal Diet has increased protein and electrolytes with decreased fat and fiber, and is not very palatable.
What is FLUTD?
FLUTD is Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease.
What is the primary use for feeding D/D Derm Diet?
D/D Derm Diet is used for restoring skin health, especially in trying to aid diagnose food allergies.
What are the characteristics of D/D Derm Diet?
D/D Derm Diet comes in 3 combinations: lamb and rice, fish and rice, and egg and rice.
What is the purpose for feeding C/D Calculi Diet?
C/D Calculi Diet is used for treatment of urinary stones, FLUTD, as well as for a maintenance diet.
What are the characteristics of C/D Calculi Diet?
C/D Calculi Diet contains decreased magnesium which causes a decrease in urine pH.
What is the purpose of feeding a W/D Weight Diet?
W/D Weight Diet is used to maintain weight loss, as well as used during bouts of diarrhea.
What are the characteristics of W/D Weight Diet?
W/D Weight Diet is a low fat diet.
What are the uses of feeding an A/D Acute Care Diet?
A/D Acute Care Diet is used in recovering surgery patients and when a bland diet is recommended because of its similiarity to I/D Diet.
What are the characteristics of A/D Acute Care Diet?
A/D Acute Care Diet is similiar to I/D Diet, and is best fed via gavage after made into a slurry.
What is the purpose of T/D Tooth Diet?
T/D Tooth Diet has specialized fibers to reduce amount of plaque and tartar as tooth penetrates the food nugget.
What is the purpose for N/D Neoplasia Diet?
N/D Neoplasia Diet is used for cancer patients to both provide needed nutrients as well as decreasing levels of nutrients that are needed for cell growth.
Why must an animal be presented to the clinic if diarrhea and vomiting have been ongoing for over 24 hours?
Ongoing vomiting and diarrhea result in dehydration and loss of electrolytes which need immediate treatment.
What are 7 common specific dietary conditions?
Specific dietary conditions commonly presented are: diarrhea and vomiting, malabsorption and maldigestion, congestive heart failure, diabetes, FLUTD, cancer, and geriatric patients.
What Prescription Diets should be used in feeding patients with diarrhea and vomiting?
Patients with diarrhea and vomiting should be fed I/D and A/D.
What are home diets for feeding animals with diarrhea and vomiting?
Food choices for home diets in cases of diarrhea and vomiting include: boiled white rice, small amounts of lamb, chicken baby feed, as well as cottage cheese and yogurt because they contain helpful enzymes.
What most often is the cause of malabsorption or maldigestion syndrome?
Malabsorption or maldigestion is most often caused by acute or chronic pancreatitis.
What are recommended home food choices for feeding an animal with malabsorption or maldigestion syndrome?
Home food choices for malabsorption or maldigestion syndrome should provide a diet with equal amounts of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins, using eggs, limited amounts of milk and cottage cheese, and a small amount of fat.
What Prescription Diet should be used in feeding an animal with malabsorption or maldigestion syndrome?
I/D Diet should be fed to animals with malabsorption or maldigestion syndrome.
Which Prescription Diets should be fed to patients with CHF?
Congestive Heart Failure patients hould be fed H/D or K/D.
What Prescription Diet should be fed to patients with diabetes?
Patients with diabetes should be fed W/D diet.
Which 2 minerals are notorious for causing urinary stones?
Magnesium and phosphorous are notorious in causing urinary stones.
Which Prescription Diet should be fed to cats with FLUTD?
Cats with Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease should be fed C/D Diet.
What are the 2 best Prescription Diets for patients with cancer?
The best Prescription Diets for cancer patients are A/D and N/D.
What Prescription Diet is best to feed geriatric patients?
G/D Geriatric Diet is best for geriatric patients.
What are 6 important factors to remember in determining energy requirements?
Dogs and cats have different DERs, cats need 2 times more protein, requirements change due to lifestage, animal products need to be in 1st 3 ingredients for cats and in 1st 5 for dogs, and the 1st ingredient for dogs should be a grain product.
What are the 3 categories of energy requirements?
Energy requirements are divided into BER, RER, and MER.
What is BER?
Base Energy Rate is the energy required by animal when lying quietly at room temperature.
What is RER?
Restorative Energy Rate is the amount the animal requires after physical activity.
What is MER?
Maintenance Energy Rate is the amount needed to have normal physical activity as well as performing functions of absorption and digestion.
What is anorexia?
Anorexia is defined as an unwillingness to eat.
What are 2 factors to consider in the treatment of anorexia?
Appetite and satiety are factors to consider in treatment of anorexia.
What is the difference between appetite and satiety?
Appetite is the desire to eat or hunger, and satiety is satisfaction or the point at which the body's caloric needs have been met.
What process controls both appetite and satiety?
Both appetite and satiety are controlled by a function called the feedback loop centered in the brain which is affected by hormones.
What are the 3 disease process steps in anorexia?
The disease process of anorexia starts with deprivation, followed by starvation, and ending with inanition.
What is food deprivation?
Food deprivation is when food is withheld from animal and metabolic levels of body are lowered, with stored proteins and sugars broken down to maintain life.
What is starvation?
Starvation is when the body further catabolizes its protein stores, including breaking down muscles, viscera, and plasma.
What is inanition?
Inanition results from total lack of nutrients in which the body has used up all reserves and usable protein, with visible signs of lack of muscle tone, emaciation, poor hair coat, and immunity deficiency.
What are 7 reasons to provide nutrition supplements?
Nutrition supplements should be provided if more than 10% of weight is lost in a short period of time, after recent surgery or trauma, if anorexic or on fluid therapy longer than 5 days, if experiencing increased protein losses, while on anti-nutrient drug therapy, if patient has cancer, or if patient is pregnant and not eating well.
What are 4 general feeding methods?
Feeding methods include: enteral, voluntary, force feeding, and parenteral feeding.
Which is the best method for feeding?
Enteral is the best method for feeding.
What are 3 types of appetite stimulants?
Appetite stimulants are B complex, Diazepam, and Cyproheptadine.
What are 2 methods of force feeding?
Force feeding can be performed by bolus or by tube feeding.
What is a bolus as used in force feeding?
A bolus is giving a mass amount at once using a syringe.
What are 6 types of tube feeding?
Tube feeding methods include: orogastric, nasogastric, pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, gastrostomy, and enterotomy.
Which is the most often used method of tube feeding?
The most often used method of tube feeding is nasogastric.
Which tube feeding methods require surgical placement?
Tube feeding methods requiring surgical placement are pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, gastrostomy, and enterotomy.
Which tube feeding method is placed into duodenum or jejunum surgically?
Enterotomy is used for surgically placing a feeding tube into duodenum or jejunum.
Which tube feeding method surgically places a feeding tube into the stomach?
Gastrostomy is the surgical placement of a feeding tube into the stomach.
Which tube feeding method surgically places the tube into the esophagus?
Esophagostomy surgically places the feeding tube into the esophagus.
Which tube feeding method surgically places a feeding tube into the pharynx?
Pharyngostomy is the surgical placement of feeding tube into the pharnyx.
Which tube feeding method is not a good route for severely compromised animals?
Severely compromised animals should not be fed via an orogastric procedure as this is a very short term method.
What are the 7 components of TPN?
Total Parenteral Nutrition components are water, carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace minerals.
Which 8 factors should be monitored with patients being administered TPNs?
Monitoring should include: vitals, urine glucose, body weight, PCV, TS, electrolytes, CBC, and chem panel.
Which TPN monitoring should be performed 2 to 4 times daily?
Vitals and urine glucose should be monitored 2 to 4 times a day.
Which monitoring should be performed for patients on TPN once a day?
Body weight, PCV, and TS should be monitored once a day.
Which monitoring on TPN patients should be done 1 to 2 times weekly?
CBC and chem panel monitoring should be accomplished 1 to 2 times a week.
Which 2 problems can arise from improper monitoring and recording of findings during administration of TPNs?
Sepsis and metabolic issues may arise if patients on TPN are not properly monitored.
What are 9 keys to dealing effectively with an obese patient?
Fully counsel client, evaluate for underlying diseases, weigh patient and set goal, estimate time to reach goal, get on diet, decrease caloric intake, feed 3 to 4 times a day, isolate pet from food prep area, and monitor weight loss with bi-monthly weigh-ins.
Why does research show that it is best to feed birds once in the morning and once in the evening?
Research shows that bird will be less obese, will be more likely to accept new foods, helps bird to bond with owner, and owner will gain better understanding of appetite and eating habits of bird.
What are 6 diet components for avians?
Diet components for avians include: sunflower seeds, fruits and vegetables, breads and seeds, meat and by products, milk and by products, and grit.
What are recommended sources of protein for avians?
Recommended sources of protein for avians include hard boiled eggs, and fresh tuna, and chicken.