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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acidosis
process that adds acid or eliminates base from body fluids
active transport
process in which molecules move across a membrane against a concentration gradient
alkalosis
process that adds base or eliminates acid from body fluids
anions
negatively charged ions
buffers
substances that act chemically to change strong acids into weaker acids or to bind acids to neutralize their effect
cations
positively charged ions
diffusion
the movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration
electrolytes
substances whose molecules dissociate or split into ions when placed in water
facilitated diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration at an accelerated rate with the assistance of a specific carrier molecule
fluid spacing
the distribution of water in the body
homeostasis
the state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival
hydrostatic pressure
the force within a fluid compartment
hypertonic
solutions that increase the degree of osmotic pressure on a semipermeable membrane
hypotonic
solutions that have a lower concentration of solute than another solution, thus exerting less osmotic pressure on a semipermeable membrane
ions
electrically charged particles
isotonic
fluids having the same concentration of solute particles as another solution, thus exerting the same osmotic pressure on a semipermeable membrane
oncotic pressure
osmotic pressure exerted by colloids in solution
osmolality
the measure of the osmotic force of solute per unit of weight of solvent (mOsm/kg or mmol/kg)
osmolarity
the measure of the total milliosmoles of solute per unit of total volume of solution (mOsm/L)
osmosis
the movement of water between two compartments separated by a membrane permeable to water but not to a solute
osmotic pressure
amount of pressure required to stop the osmotic flow of water
pH
negative logarithm of the H+ concentration
tetany
increased nerve excitability and sustained muscle contraction that results from low calcium levels that allow sodium to move into excitable cells, increasing depolarization; low calcium levels affect the membrane potential
valence
the electrical charge of an ion