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178 Cards in this Set

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Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones
Endocrine system
What is it called when the effects of hormones often reverse the stimulus and ultimately lead to decreased secretion of the hormone?
It’s called a negative feedback system
The posterior pituitary gland stores which hormones?
antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
Which glands secretes its hormones in response to releasing hormones from the hypothalamus?
The anterior & posterior pituitary glands
The anterior pituitary gland synthesizes and secretes which hormones?
growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.
What three hormones are produced by the thyroid gland?
T4, T3 and Calcitonin
What tones down serum calcium blood levels?
calciTONin TONes down serum calcium
What Parathyroid gland hormone is an antagonist to calcitonin?
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases resorption of __________ and __________ from the bones to the blood, which raises their blood levels?
calcium and phosphate
Each adrenal gland consists of an ____________________ and ____________________.
inner adrenal medulla and an outer adrenal cortex
The adrenal medulla cells secrete __________ and __________.
epinephrine and norepinephrine
What is the homeostatic imbalance called that is a full-blown hypothyroid syndrome? If caused by lack of iodine its called?
Myxedema,
endemic or goiter
Which adrenal hormone is secreted in larger amounts and increases the heart rate, force of contraction and therefore blood pressure, and stimulates the liver to convert glycogen to glucose?
epinephrine
The pancreatic islets contain alpha cells and beta cells, what do each of them produce?
alpha cells produce glucagon and beta cells produce insulin or

A comes before B & G comes before I
What is the homeostatic imbalance called that is hyperthyroid syndrome?
Graves' disease
The functions of glucagon are all related to ?
energy production
What two reasons is Calcitonin important?
1) inhibits bone resorption & release of Ca from the bony matrix
2) stimulates Ca uptake and incorporation into bone matrix
Glucagon stimulates the liver to catabolize glycogen to glucose, what does that do?
raises the blood glucose level for cellular uptake and respiration.
The secretion of glucagon is stimulated by?
hypoglycemia, a low blood glucose level
Insulin increases the transport of glucose from the blood into cells by increasing the permeability of cell membranes to glucose, so insulin?
decreases the blood glucose level by increasing the use of glucose for energy, promoting the storage of excess glucose, and decreasing energy production
What gland is the only palpable endocrine gland?
The thyroid gland
How can a nurse assist a physician to palpate the thyroid gland?
1) positioning the patient
2) providing water
3) instructing the patient to take a sip of water and hold it in his or her mouth until told to swallow
The thyroid gland should never be palpated in a patient with...
Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism because this can stimulate secretion of additional thyroid hormone.
In trying to get a 24-hour urine specimen if the patient is incontinent or otherwise unable to participate in the test...
then a catheter may need to be inserted.
The scan will show hot spots which are?
nodules and not malignant
The scan will show cold spots which are?
areas that do not take up the radioactivity and indicate malignancy
Is the control of hormone release a negative or positive feedback system?
negative feedback system
Which hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland? Select all that apply.

a. Antidiuretic hormone
b. Thyroid- stimulating hormone
c. Growth hormone
d. Luteinizing hormone
e. Oxytocin
f. Calcitonin
a. Antidiuretic hormone and e. Oxytocin
What are the functions of T4 and T3?

a. Retention of salt and water
b. Maintenance of blood sugar
c. Maintenance of blood pressure
d. Regulation of energy production
d. Regulation of energy production
Which hormone maintains strong bones?

a. ADH b. Insulin c. Calcitonin d. TRH
c. Calcitonin
The nurse is doing an admission assessment on a new resident to an extended care facility. The patient’s face and shoulders seem to have a lot of fat, but the patient’s arms and legs are thin. Excess of which hormone might be involved?

a. Cortisol b. ADH c. Insulin d. Epinephrine
a. Cortisol
When explaining a thyroid scan to a patient, which of the following statements is correct?

a. “ You will take a special pill, and then an ultrasound will be taken of your neck.”
b. “ You will receive an injection of radioactive material, and then a special camera will take pictures of your thyroid gland.”
c. “ You will be placed into a special machine, and x- rays will be taken of your neck. It may be noisy.”
d. “ You will be given a special drink, and then magnetic energy is used to visualize the thyroid area.”
b. “ You will receive an injection of radioactive material, and then a special camera will take pictures of your thyroid gland.”
Name the 6 anterior pituitary hormones.
1) Growth Hormone (GH)
2) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
3) Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH)
4) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
5) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
6) Prolactin (PRL)
A deficiency of ADH causes
Diabetes insipidus
Name the 2 posterior pituitary hormones.
1) Oxytocin
2) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
Tumors, trauma, or other problems in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland can lead to?
decreased production or release of ADH
What are the S/S of diabetes insipidus?
polyuria, nocturia, urine specific gravity is decreased, making the urine diluted and light in color.
What is the hypoglycemic hormone?
Insulin
Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus is based on what?
history of risk factors, reported symptoms, and urine specific gravity will be less than 1.001
What is the hyperglycemic homone?
Glucagon
Hypotonic intravenous (IV) fluids such as 0.45% saline solution are ordered to replace intravascular volume without adding excessive sodium. This fluid is called?
Half Normal
If patients require long-term therapy, then?
synthetic ADH in the form of nasal spray is used twice a day.
NURSING PROCESS FOR THE PATIENT WITH DIABETES INSIPIDUS when collecting data pay special attention to fluid balance?
Daily weights are the most reliable method for monitoring the amount of fluid that is being lost & Taking accurate intake and output (I&O) measurements.
Nursing Diagnoses of Deficient Fluid Volume
The patient’s fluid balance will be maintained aeb urine specific gravity between 1.001-1.029, skin turgor within normal limits, and stable daily weight.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) results from?
too much ADH in the body
S/S of Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
fluid overload, such as weight gain (usually without edema), dilutional hyponatremia, urine is concentrated b/c water is not being excreted.
Disorder resulting from hyperactive thyroid gland
Grave's Disease
Treatment of Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
Treatment is aimed at eliminating the cause.
Disease characterized by passage of a large quantity of dilute urine plus intense thirst and dehydration caused by inadequate release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
Diabetes insipidus
Oversecretion of GH that affects adults, usually in their 30s or 40s is?
Acromegaly
Condition resulting from underactive thyroid gland.
Myxedema
The major hormone secreted by thyroid follicles; stimulates enzymes concerned with glucose oxidation.
Thyroid hormone
Excess secretion of growth hormone can be caused by ______________________ or ______________________
1) pituitary hyperplasia, a benign pituitary tumor or
2) excess of GH-releasing hormone due to hypothalamic dysfunction
S/S of Acromegaly
Often the first symptom noticed is a change in ring or shoe size, nose, jaw, brow, hands, and feet enlarge
Hormone-producing glands located superior to the kidneys; each consists of medulla and cortex areas.
Adrenal glands
Therapeutic Measures for Acromegaly
Treatment is aimed at the cause
Small endocrine glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
Parathyroid glands
Nursing Diagnoses for Disturbed Body Image
•Approach patient with an attitude of acceptance and caring to help develop trusting nurse-patient relationship.
•Acknowledge patient’s feelings of anger or depression related to body image changes. Most changes will be permanent and may be distressing to patient.
Postoperative Nursing Care of the Patient after Hypophysectomy: The patient is placed on hormone replacement therapy. Which hormones are generally given?
These may include thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, intranasal desmopressin, and sex hormones.
Neuroendocrine gland located beneath the brain that serves a variety of functions includinf regulation of gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, lactation, and water balance.
Pituitary gland
How does primary hypothyroidism occurs?
It occurs when the thyroid gland fails to produce enough TH even though enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is being secreted by the pituitary gland.
Term used to describe hormones such as glucagon that elevate blood glocose level.
Hyperglycemic
Posterior pituitary
Neurohypophysis
S/S of Hypothyroidism
Manifestations are related to the reduced metabolic rate and include fatigue, weight gain, bradycardia, constipation, mental dullness, feeling cold, shortness of breath, decreased sweating, and dry skin and hair
Complications of Hypothyroidism
If the metabolic rate drops so low that it becomes life threatening, the result is myxedema coma. This usually occurs in patients with long- standing, untreated hypothyroidism and can be triggered by stress, such as infection, trauma, or exposure to cold.
Treatment of Hypothyroidism
treated with oral thyroid replacement hormone
Ductless glands that emply their hormonal products directly into the blood.
Endocrine glands
What is one cause of hyperthyroidism that is more common in young women?
Graves’ disease
S/S of Hyperthyroidism
related to the hypermetabolic state, such as heat intolerance, increased appetite with weight loss
S/S of Graves’ disease
thickening of the skin on the anterior legs and exophthalmos (bulging of the eyes) caused by swelling of the tissues behind the eyes.
What should the nurse do to help the patient that is has S/S of Graves' disease?
Provide an accepting attitude
Gland located behind the stomach, produces both endocrine and exocrine secretions.
Pancreas
What is the severe hyperthyroid state that can occur in hyperthyroid people who are untreated or after thyroid surgery in patients who have been inadequately prepared with antithyroid medicine?
Thyrotoxic crisis (sometimes called thyroid storm)
State in which a greater than normal amount of insulin is required to maintain normal glucose blood levels.
Insulin resistance
Symptoms of a Thyrotoxic crisis
tachycardia, high fever, hypertension, dehydration, restlessness, and delirium or coma.
Treatment of a Thyrotoxic crisis
Intravenous fluids, a cooling blanket, a beta-adrenergic blocker-propranolol is given for tachycardia and symptom control, O2 is administered and the head of the bed is elevated
Nursing Process for the Patient with Hyperthyroidism
Monitor vital signs and report any increases in pulse or blood pressure
Risk for Injury Related to Hypermetabolic State and Eye Involvement
Administer lubricating saline eyedrops as ordered to protect eyes from drying.
Adrenal cortex hormones that increase blood glucose levels and aid the body in resisting long-term stressors.
Glucocorticoids
Enlargement of the thyroid gland is called a?
goiter
Any stimulus that directly or indirectly causes the hypothalamus to initiate stress-reducing responses.
Stressor
A goiter may be associated with a ________, ________, or ________ state.
hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, or euthyroid
A hormone that enhances the carrier-mediated diffusion of glucose into tissue cells, thus lowering blood glucose levels.
Insulin
S/S of a Goiter
The thyroid gland is enlarged, swelling may be apparent at the base of the neck, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism
Therapeutic Measures for a Goiter
Treatment is aimed at the cause. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is treated if indicated.
Nursing Care for a patient with a Goiter
Assess the effect of the goiter on breathing and swallowing. Stridor, a whistling sound, may be heard if the airway is obstructed. Stridor is an ominous sign and should be reported to the MD immediately.
Nursing Process for the Patient Undergoing Thyroidectomy
After a total thyroidectomy, lifelong replacement hormone must be taken.
Preoperative Care for the Patient Undergoing Thyroidectomy
Before undergoing a thyroidectomy, the patient should be in a euthyroid state.
Lymphoid organ and endocrine gland active in immune response
Thymus
Postoperative Care for the Patient Undergoing Thyroidectomy
Monitor vital signs, oxygen saturation, drain (if present), dressing every 15 minutes, and monitor the patient’s serum calcium levels and watch for evidence of tetany
Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level.
Parathyroid hormone
Cardiovascular Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Bradycardia, decreased cardiac output, cool skin, cold intolerance
Cardiovascular Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Tachycardia, palpitations, increased cardiac output, warm skin, heat intolerance
Hormone that opposes the action of another hormone.
Antagonist
Neurologic Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Lethargy, slowed movements, memory loss, confusion
Neurologic Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Fatigue, restlessness, hyperactive reflexes, tremor, insomnia, emotional instability
Pulmonary Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Dyspnea, hypoventilation
Thyroid hormone, secretion and function similar to those of thyroxine (T 4).
Triiodothyronine (T 3)
Pulmonary Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Dyspnea
Integumentary Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Cool, dry skin; brittle, dry hair
Integumentary Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Diaphoresis; warm, moist skin; fine, soft hair
Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Decreased appetite, weight gain, constipation, increased serum lipid levels
Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Increased appetite, weight loss, frequent stools, decreased serum lipid levels
Reproductive Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Decreased libido, erectile dysfunction
One of the largest of the body's endocrine glands; straddles the anterior trachea.
Thyroid gland
Reproductive Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea
NURSING DIAGNOSES for Ineffective Airway Clearance
Keep a tracheostomy set at the bedside.

Although not common, a tracheostomy may be needed in an emergency if edema obstructs the airway.
NURSING DIAGNOSES for Risk for Injury (Tetany, Thyrotoxic Crisis) Related to Surgical Procedure
• Monitor patient for muscle spasms or numbness or tingling around the mouth
• Monitor vital signs often, and report changes immediately.
What is caused by low calcium levels and is characterized by tingling in the fingers and perioral area (around the mouth), muscle spasms, twitching, and cardiac dysrhythmias?
tetany
Hormone formed by alpha cells of pancreatic islets; raises the glucose level of blood.
Glucagon
What is used to treat acute tetany?
IV calcium gluconate
Principal blood sugar
Glucose
A neurotransmitter and adrenal medullary hormone, associated with sympathetic nervous system activation.
Norepinephrine
What is the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism?
heredity and the accidental removal of the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy or other neck surgeries
Iodine-containing hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
Thyroxine (T 4)
What disorder causes a decrease in PTH causes a decrease in bone resorption of calcium, a decrease in calcium absorption by the GI tract, and decreased resorption in the kidneys.
hypoparathyroidism
Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels in the blood.
Calcitonin
Overactivity of one or more of the parathyroid glands causes an increase in PTH, with a subsequent increase in the serum calcium level (hypercalcemia).
hyperparathyroidism
Hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water
Antidiuretic hormone
S/S of hyperparathyroidism
by an increase in serum calcium level, fatigue, depression, confusion, bone and joint pain and pathological fractures can occur
Adenohypophyseal hormone that regulates secretion of thyroid hormones
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Nursing Diagnosis Risk for Injury
Encourage strengthening and weight-bearing exercises to help keep calcium in the bones.
Chief hormone produced by the adrenal medulla
Epinephrine
What is the uncommon tumor that arises from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla?
pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytoma tumor autonomously secretes __________ ___________ and ___________ in excessive amounts.
cate-cholamines ( epinephrine and norepinephrine)
S/S of Pheochromocytoma
exaggerated fight-or-flight symptoms, hypertension, tachycardia, palpitations, tremor, diaphoresis, feeling of apprehension, and severe pounding headache.
What is the treatment for pheochromocytoma?
surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands
NURSING DIAGNOSES for Risk for Injury Related to Hypertensive Crisis
Approach the patient calmly and maintain a quiet environment. Stress may precipitate a hypertensive episode.
What disease has an insufficient production of the hormones of the adrenal cortex?
Adrenocortical insufficiency (AI)
Adrenal insufficiency is associated with reduced levels of _______, ______, or _________________.
cortisol, aldosterone, or a deficiency in androgens
Glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex
Cortisol
S/S of Addison's Disease
hypotension. This is related to the lack of aldosterone.
Term used to describe hormones such as insulin that decrease blood glucose level.
Hypoglycemic
If a patient is exposed to stress, such as infection, trauma, or psychological pressure, the body may be unable to respond normally with secretion of cortisol and an ______ _______ can occur.
adrenal crisis
Anterior pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
What is the long-term treatment / therapeutic measure for Addison's Disease or AI?
Replacement of glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone) and mineralocorticoids (fludrocortisone) for the rest of their lives
Cushing’s syndrome is caused by?
exposure to excess cortisol due to prolonged use of glucocorticoid medication (e.g., prednisone) for chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Crohn’s disease.
Suspicion of Cushing’s syndrome may initially be based on?
a cushingoid appearance
What Therapeutic Measures are done for Cushing's syndrome?
If a pituitary or ACTH-secreting tumor is present, surgical removal or radiation therapy
If the cause of Cushing’s syndrome is administration of steroid medication, what can be done to reduce the side effects?
a lower dose of steroids, an every- other-day schedule, or once-a-day dosing in the morning
NURSING DIAGNOSES for Excess Fluid Volume
• Monitor daily weights and report changes promptly so treatment can begin.
•Teach the patient ordered dietary modifications. A low-sodium, high-potassium diet may help keep electrolytes in balance.
Which disorder results from too much cortisol secretion in the body?

a. Addison’s disease
b. Hypothyroidism
c. Cushing’s syndrome
d. Pheochromocytoma
c. Cushing’s syndrome
Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that regulates Na reabsorption and K secretion by the kidneys.
Aldosterone
A patient with SIADH asks the nurse why he has gained 10 pounds. Which response is best?

a. “ SIADH causes an increase in appetite. As soon as you are effectively treated, the weight should drop back to normal for you.”
b. “ You are retaining a lot of sodium and potassium, and that causes you to gain a lot of water weight.”
c. “ You have too much of a hormone in your system that causes you to retain water. The extra 10 pounds is likely water weight.”
d. “ Your kidneys are not working correctly, so they can’t get rid of extra water from your system.”
c. “ You have too much of a hormone in your system that causes you to retain water. The extra 10 pounds is likely water weight.”
Which assessment finding should the nurse expect to see in the patient with uncontrolled diabetes insipidus? Select all that apply.

a. Edema
b. Polyuria
c. Heat intolerance
d. Diarrhea
e. Polydipsia
f. Dehydration
b. Polyuria
e. Polydipsia
f. Dehydration
Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Which of the following instructions should the nurse provide to the patient who is being discharged after a thyroidectomy?

a. “ You must take your thyroid replacement every day just as the physician prescribed.”
b. “ You must weigh yourself daily and report any gain or loss of more than 1 pound.”
c. “ You will need to return to the physician’s office for a weekly blood pressure check.”
d. “ You will need to restrict your sodium and potassium intake.”
a. “ You must take your thyroid replacement every day just as the physician prescribed.”
Which of the following nursing assessments is most im-portant in the patient with hyperthyroidism and risk for thyrotoxic crisis?

a. Intake and output
b. Breath sounds
c. Bowel sounds
d. Vital signs
d. Vital signs
Which action by the nurse is most important following hypophysectomy?

a. Performing a routine neurologic assessment
b. Encouraging the patient to cough and deep breathe
c. Monitoring for tracheal edema
d. Assisting with use of an incentive spirometer
a. Performing a routine neurologic assessment
Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones
Endocrine system
Which of the following statements by the patient with hypothyroidism indicates to the nurse that the plan of care has been effective?

a. “ I feel so much better now that my energy is returning.”
b. “ I’m really glad the diarrhea has stopped.”
c. “ I’m so glad I won’t have to take medication for very long.”
d. “ My fingers aren’t tingling any more.”
a. “ I feel so much better now that my energy is returning.”
Disease caused by deficient insulin realease or by insulin resistance, leading to inability of the body cells to use carbohydrates
Diabetes mellitus
Which of the following is the best definition of diabetes mellitus?

a. It is a disease in which high blood glucose results from defective insulin secretion or action.
b. It is a disease that causes polyuria and polydipsia.
c. It is a disease characterized by macrovascular and microvascular complications.
d. It is a complex disease of protein and fat metabolism.
a. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by defective insulin secretion or action.
Which of the following is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus?

a. Cardiovascular disease
b. Obesity
c. Age younger than 40 years
d. Virus exposure
b. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes is diagnosed when the fasting blood glucose is greater than ____ mg/dL.
126 mg/dL
Which of the following symptoms is most commonly associated with hyperglycemia?

a. Tremor
b. Flank pain
c. Sweating
d. Polyuria
d. Hyperglycemia causes polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia.
Protein in the urine is a sign of which long-term complication of diabetes?

a. Nephropathy
b. Neuropathy
c. Retinopathy
d. Gastroparesis
a. Nephropathy, or damage to the small vessels in the nephrons, causes protein to leak into the urine.
What is the best way for patients to avoid long-term complications of diabetes?

a. See the doctor for a complete checkup every 6 months.
b. Check feet daily.
c. Maintain premeal blood glucose levels under 130 mg/ dL.
d. Follow a strict meal plan for diabetes.
c. Tight control of blood glucose levels is the best way to prevent complications.

Selections a, b, and d are also helpful, but are not the best way.
7. Which breakfast menu is most appropriate for a patient with diabetes?

a. Two eggs, two strips bacon, orange juice, coffee
b. Oatmeal with artificial sweetener, whole-grain toast, tea
c. One half grapefruit, cranberry juice, bagel with sugar-free jelly
d. One slice whole-grain toast with peanut butter, skim milk, orange juice
d. Includes a balance of complex carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Selection a is high fat, low carbohydrate. Selections b and c have minimal fat or protein.
8. Place the steps for mixing insulin in correct sequential order.

a. Draw up cloudy insulin.
b. Draw up clear insulin.
c. Roll cloudy vial.
d. Inject air into cloudy insulin.
e. Inject air into clear insulin.
f. Clean vial tops with alcohol.
1st-c, 2nd-f, 3rd-d, 4th-e, 5th-b, 6th-a.
9. For which of the following blood glucose results would the nurse administer a fast sugar?

a. 48
b. 80
c. 126
d. 223
a. 48 is below normal and is considered hypoglycemia.
A patient who is preparing for surgery asks the nurse why his physician took him off his oral hypoglycemic and placed him on sliding-scale insulin. Which response by the nurse is best?

a. “ It helps us maintain better control of your blood glucose during surgery. You will most likely be back on your pills before you go home.”
b. “ The stress of surgery often exacerbates diabetes. We will teach you how to give insulin before you go home.”
c. “ Oral hypoglycemics are ineffective during times of stress. Insulin is the only way to keep your blood glucose under control.”
d. “ The oral agents must not be controlling your blood glucose any longer. I will check and see which insulin you will be going home on.”
a. Sliding scale insulin may be needed during times of stress or illness
Which meal plan is best for the patient with reactive hypoglycemia?

a. High-carbohydrate meals
b. Small, frequent meals
c. Avoidance of fats and proteins
d. Three medium to large meals daily
b. Small, frequent, low-carbohydrate meals will help prevent fluctuations in blood glucose.
Onset of Type 1 Diabetes
Rapid
Onset of Type 2 Diabetes
Slow
Age at onset of Type 1 Diabetes
Usually younger than 40
Age at onset of Type 2 Diabetes
Usually older than 40
Risk factors of Type 1
Virus, autoimmune response, heredity
Risk factors of Type 2
Heredity, obesity
Usual body type for Type 1
Lean
Usual body type for Type 2
Obese
High blood glucose complication for Type 1
Ketoacidosis
High blood glucose complication for Type 2
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia; may develop ketoacidosis
Treatment for Type 1
Diet, exercise; must have insulin to survive
Treatment for Type 2
Diet, exercise; may need oral hypoglycemics or insulin to control blood glucose level
Short acting Regular Insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R)

Onset? Peak? Duration?
Onset 30 min
Peak 2– 5 hr
Duration 5– 8 hr
Intermediate acting NPH (Humulin N, Novolin N)

Onset? Peak? Duration?
Onset 1– 2 hr
Peak 6– 12 hr
Duration 18– 26 hr
Basal Insulin glargine (Lantus AE) Insulin detemir (Levemir)

Onset? Peak? Duration?
Onset (Lantus AE) 1– 2 hr
Onset (Levemir) 1 hr
Peak No peak
Duration Up to 24 hr