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74 Cards in this Set

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The ratio of the width of the television screen to its height. In STV (Standard Television), it is 4 x 3; for HDTV, it is 16 x 9.
Aspect Ratio
Object or any part of it seen at close range and framed tightly. The close-up can be extreme (extreme or big close-up) or rather loose (medium close-up)
Close-up (CU)
Object seen from far away or framed very loosely. The extreme long shot shows the object from a great distance. Also called establishing shot.
Long Shot/WideShot (LS WS)
The area in which all objects, located at different distances from the camera, appear in focus. Depends primarily on the focal length of the lens, its f-stop, and the distance from the camera to the object.
Depth of Field
The portion of a scene visible through a particular lens; its vista. Expressed in symbols, such as CU for close-up.
Field of View
The space between the top of the head and the upper screen edge.
Headroom
The space in front of a laterally moving object or person.
Leadroom
The space in front of a person looking or pointing toward the edge of the screen.
Noseroom
Camera looks over the camera near person’s shoulder (shoulder and back of head included in shot) at the other person.
Over the Shoulder Shot (O/S)
Similar to the over-theshoulder shot except that the camera-near person is completely out of the shot.
Cross Shot (X/S)
Object seen from a medium distance. Covers any framing between a long shot and a close-up.
Medium Shot (MS)
Mentally filling in missing visual information that will lead to a complete and stable configuration. Also called Closure.
Psychological Closure
A directional screen force. There are graphic, index, and motion vectors.
Vectors
Stands for Audiotape Recorder
ATR
A device that receives a signal in the form of one type of energy and converts it to a signal in another form.
Transducer
A relatively rugged microphone. Good for outdoor use.
Dynamic Microphone
High-quality, sensitive microphone for critical sound pickup.
Condenser Microphone
High-quality, highly sensitive microphone for critical sound pickup in the studio, usually for recording string instruments.
Ribbon Microphone
Volume Unit Meter, measures volume units, the relative loudness of amplified sound.
VU Meter
Pickup pattern with which the microphone can hear equally well from all directions.
Omnidirectional
Pickup pattern with which the microphone can hear best from the front.
Unidirectional
Heart-shaped pickup pattern of a unidirectional microphone
Cardioid
A very narrow pickup pattern with a long reach. The mic can also hear sounds coming directly from the back.
Hypercardioid
A small microphone that is clipped to clothing. Also called lav.
Lavalier
A socket or receptacle for a connector
Jack
Connector for video and audio equipment
RCA Phono plug
The territory around the microphone within which the mic can hear well.
Pickup Pattern
Stands for Digital Audio Tape
DAT
Professional three-wire connector for audio cables
XLR Connector
Acoustic foam rubber that is put over the entire microphone to cut down wind noise.
Windscreen
A wire-mesh screen attached to the front of a mic that reduces breath pops and sudden air blasts.
Pop filter
The triangular arrangement of key, back, and fill lights, with the back light opposite the camera and directly behind the object, and the key and fill lights on opposite sides of the camera and to the front and the side of the object. Also called triangle, or three-point, lighting.
Photographic Principle
Principal source of illumination; usually a spotlight.
Key light
Illumination from behind the subject and opposite the camera; usually a spotlight
Back light
Additional light on the opposite side of the camera from the key light to illuminate shadow areas and thereby reduce falloff; usually done with floodlights
Fill light
Light that strikes the object directly from its source. To measure incident light, point the light meter at the camera lens or into the lighting instruments
Incident lighting
Relative reddishness or bluishness of white light, as measured on the Kelvin (K) scale. The norm for indoor video lighting is 3,200K; for outdoors, 5,600K.
Color temperature
The standard scale for measuring color temperature, or the relative reddishness or bluishness of white
Kelvin (K)
The unit of measurement of illumination or the amount of light that falls on an object. One foot-candle is 1 candlepower of light (1 lumen) that falls on a 1-square-foot area located 1 foot away from the light source.
Foot-candle (fc)
Light that is bounced off the illuminated object. To measure reflected light, point the light meter close to the object from the direction of the camera.
Reflected Light
European standard unit for measuring light intensity. One lux is 1 lumen (1 candlepower) of light that falls on a surface of 1 square meter located 1 meter away from the light source. 10.75 lux=1 foot-candle. Most lightning people figure roughly 10 lux=1 foot-candle.
Lux
The difference between the brightest and the darkest spots in a video picture.
Contrast
Stands for red, green, and blue—the basic colors of television
RGB
A lighting instrument that produces directional, relatively undiffused light
Spotlight
Light that illuminates a relatively small area with a distinct light beam. Directional light, produced by spotlights, created harsh, clearly defined shadows.
Directional Light
A device that controls the intensity of light by throttling the electric current flowing to the lamp.
Dimmer
The workhorse of studio spotlights.Its len creates a relatively sharp light beam that can be partially blocked by barn doors. This spotlight can be focused, tilted up and down, and panned sideways by turning the knobs with a lighting pole (a wooden pole with a metal hook at the end)
Fresnel
Used to fasten heavy lighting instruments to the lighting batterns. Even when tightly fastened to the batten, the C-clamp allows the lighting instrument to be turned.
C-clamp
Similar to capturing analog audio and video. The analog signals of a videotape are converted to digital signals for storage on the computer hard drive.
Digitizing
Uses videotape as the editing medium. It does not allow random access of shots.
Linear Editing System
Allows random access of shots. The video and audio information is stored in digital form on computer disks. Usually has two external monitors, small loudspeakers, and an audio mixer.
Nonlinear Editing System
A machine that assists in various editing functions, such as marking edit-in and edit-out points, rolling source and record VTRs, and integrating effects. It can be a desktop computer with a specific software program. Also called editing control unit.
Edit Controller
A preliminary off-line edit
Rough cut
In linear editing it produces the final high-quality edit master for broadcast or program duplication. In nonlinear editing it requires recapturing the selected shots at a higher resolution.
Online Editing
In linear editing it produces an edit decision list or an edit master not intended for broadcast. In nonlinear editing the selected shots are captured in low resolution to save computer storage space.
Offline Editing
Edit Decision List, consists of edit-in and edit-out points, expressed in time code numbers, and the nature of transitions between shots
EDL
Adding shots on videotape in a consecutive order without first recording a control track on the edit master tape.
Assemble Editing
Produces highly stable edits. Requires the prior laying of a continuous control track by recording black on the edit master tape.
Insert Editing
The videotape or disc that contains the final version of an edited program. Subsequent copies are struck from the edit master.
Edit Master Tape
1. Capture
2. Editing
3. Export to Videotape or Disc
Nonlinear Editing Procedures
A specially generated address code that marks each video frame with a specific number (hour, minute, second, and frame). Named for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, this time code is officially called SMPTE/EBU (for European Broadcasting Union)
SMPTE time code
A black signal on the tape that is to become the edit master if you are working with an analog editing system.
Control Track
A record of each take on the source tapes. Also called editing log.
VTR Log
Slate each take
Leave margins for editing
Record background sounds
Keep a field log
Tape cutaway shots
Post Production Tips
A shot of an object or event that is peripherally connected with the overall event and that is relatively static. Commonly used between two shots that do not provide good continuity.
Cutaway
An image that jumps slightly from one screen position to another during a cut. Also, any gross visual discontinuity from shot to shot.
Jump Cut
Tells us where things are or are supposed to be in on and off-screen space
Mental Map
Preserving visual continuity from shot to shot.
Continuity Editing
Graphic vectors that extend each other, or index and motion vectors that point and move in the same direction
Continuing vectors
Index and motion vectors that point away from each other.
Diverging vectors
An imaginary line created by extending converging index vectors or the direction of a motion vector. Also called the line of conversation and action, the hundredeighty (for 180 degrees. or simply, the line.
Vector line
Index and motion vectors that point toward each other.
Converging Vectors
Frame-by-frame advancement of a recorded shot sequence, resulting in a jerking motion.
Jogging
We edit to tell a story with clarity and impact
Why do we edit?