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205 Cards in this Set

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During this time period much of the classical culture of Greece & Rome was lost in Western Europe
Middle Ages
Rebirth of classical ideas of Greece & Rome.
Renaissance
Time of great artistic and intellectual creativity.
Renaissance
Marked the transition from Medieval to Modern Times.
Renaissance
Birthplace of the Renaissance.
Italian City-States (Florence was first)
The Renaissance began in Northern Italy about ________. (date)
A.D. 1300
The Renaissance peaked around __________.
A.D. 1500
Thought system of the Renaissance.
Humanism
Emphasized human worth and the importance of the individual. (ideology)
Humanism
Focused more on life in this world than on the afterlife.
Humanists
Powerful banking family that ruled Florence.
Medici
The support of the Medici family helped Florence produce many _________.
artists and scholars
"Father of Humanism"
Petrarch
Assembled a library of ancient Greek & Roman Manuscripts.
Petrarch
Author of The Prince.
Machiavelli
The ends justifies the means in political actions. (book)
The Prince
Was a guide to rulers on how to gain and keep political power often by ruthless means.
The Prince
Renaissance art differed from Medieval art in that it portrayed non-religious subjects and was _________.
more realistic
A man talented in many areas.
"Renaissance Man"
The best example of the "Renaissance Man."
Leonardo da Vinci
In addition to his paintings like "The Last Supper" he drew sketches of flying machines.
Leonardo da Vinci
Commissioned by the Pope to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Michelangelo
A "melancholy genius" who was a sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet.
Michelangelo
While the Renaissance was flowering in Italy Northern Europe was recovering from the____.
Black Death
Killed nearly half the people of Western Europe in the 14th century.
Black Death
The Renaissance in Northern Europe was more ____.
Religious in nature
The Northern Renaissance began in _________.
Flanders
Renaissance writers who wanted to reform the Church.
Christian Humanists
Criticized society by comparing it to an ideal society. (book)
Utopia
Author of Utopia.
Thomas More
He was executed because he would not accept Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England.
Thomas More
Erasmus and Thomas Moore were _______.
Christian Humanists
Renaissance writers often wrote in the ______.
Vernacular
Language of the common people.
Vernacular
Priest who wanted the common man to be able to read the scripture and fought corruption in the Church.
Erasmus
"Leonardo of the North" his engravings often portrayed religious upheaval.
Albrecht Durer
His plays often explored the complexity of the individual.
Shakespeare
Helped spread the ideas of both the Renaissance and the Reformation. (Invention)
Printing Press
Inventor of the Printing Press.
Johann Gutenberg
Founder of the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther
Broke with the Catholic church over salvation by faith.
Martin Luther
Christians became divided as Catholics and Protestants.
Reformation
Freed the owner of time in Purgatory/were granted by the Church.
indulgences
Place of suffering where people are purified of sins before going to heaven.
Purgatory
Authorized the sale of indulgences.
Pope Leo X
To finance Renaissance projects in Rome Pope Leo X authorized the sale of ___________.
indulgences
Issue that actually brought Luther in conflict with the Roman Catholic church.
sale of indulgences
Luther's criticism of the sale of indulgences. (Document).
95 Theses
Ninety-five Theses nailed to Church in____. (date).
A.D. 1517
One is saved solely by trusting Christ.
Justification by Faith
Luther's basic belief.
Justification by Faith
Luther believed it was the only authority for Christian life.
Bible
Council condemns Luther as heretic and outlaw.
Diet of Worms
Excommunicated Luther (person)
Pope Leo X
Holy Roman Emperor/called Diet of Worms/ fought against Protestantism.
Charles V
Encouraged by Luther's idea of Christian freedom Peasants demanded an end to serfdom and ______________.
revolted
With Luther's support the Nobles brutally suppressed the ______________.
Peasant revolt
Those who broke away from the Catholic Church.
Protestants
Name originally referred to the princes who refused to join the pope against Luther, eventually comes to refer to all who broke with the Catholic Church.
Protestant
In Geneva Switzerland Calvin established a _______.
Theocracy
Calvin's teaching that God determines what will happen before it does, especially who will be saved. (actually before the foundations of the universe).
Predestination
Calvin was most influenced by Luther's idea that humans __________________.
cannot earn a place in heaven
One reason for the Reformation was that European merchants _____________.
resented paying taxes to the Church in Rome
Luther & others break from the Catholic Church.
Protestant Reformation
Catholic Reformation
Counter Reformation
Lutheran, Reformed, Anabaptist, and Anglicanism
four branches of Reformation
Shaped the reformed branch of the reformation. (person)
John Calvin
English King broke with the pope.
Henry VIII
end his marriage
Henry VIII broke with the pope because he would not __________.
Made Henry VIII the official head of the Church of England. (1534)
Act of Supremacy
Daughter of Henry VIII tried to reinstate Catholicism.
Mary I (Mary Tudor or Bloody Mary)
Made England Protestant with some Catholic practices. (ruler)
Elizabeth I
Name of the Protestant Church of England
Anglicanism
Wanted to purify the Anglican Church of Catholic practices. (group)
Puritans
Puritan beliefs were ________.
Calvinistic
Attempts to reform the Catholic Church and win back converts.
Counter Reformation
Defined Catholic doctrine (1545) (meeting)
Council of Trent
Agreed that the Church's interpretation of the Bible was final. (meeting)
Council of Trent
Council of Trent
Established direction of Catholic reforms.
Founder of the Jesuit Order.
Ignatius Loyola
A society of Jesus.
Jesuits
Attempted to win people back to Catholicism by education (group)
Jesuits
The Council of Trent and the formation of the Jesuits were parts of the __________.
Counter Reformation
Gave each prince the right to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism for his realm. (1555) (Holy Roman Empire) (German states)
Peace of Augsburg
Radical wing of the Reformation, Sought a return to early Christianity.
Anabaptists
Believed people should be baptized only after conversion or regeneration (group).
Anabaptists
First to want complete separation of Church and State (group).
Anabaptist
Menno Simons demanded _________.
Pacifism
The belief that violence or warfare are never justified & should never be used even to serve a good cause.
Pacifism
After Menno Simons death Anabaptists in the Netherlands were called ______.
Mennonites
In some Italian cities Jews were forced to live in a separate part of the city called a ________.
ghetto
In the 1400s European explorers searched for a better _______.
trade route to Asia
In the 1300s Europeans depended on Asia & India for ________.
Spices
In the 1300's controlled the spice trade in Asia & Europe
Arab & Venetian merchants
Merchants seeking profitable trade with Asia.
Motivation for exploration
Christian leaders sought to halt expansion of Islamic empires and spread Christian teachings
Motivation for exploration
Explorers were aided by improved sailing and navigation _______.
Technology
First country to venture out on the Atlantic ocean in search of spices and Gold.
Portugal
Set up a school for Navigators
Prince Henry the Navigator
Under his patronage sailors discovered: the Azores, the Madeira Islands and the Cape Verde Islands.
Prince Henry the Navigator
The discoveries made under the patronage of Prince Henry became the foundation of the ___________.
Portuguese Empire
Discovered the sea route around Africa past the Cape of Good Hope
Bartholomeu Dias
Portuguese captain who was first to reach India. (Calicut)
Vasco da Gama
In the 1400s, the Portuguese established a major presence on __________.
the coasts of Africa
Portuguese defeated the Muslims and established control of the _________.
Indian Ocean
Seizing key ports around the Indian Ocean they came to dominate European-Asian trade.
Portuguese
An end to internal and external conflict enable Spain to enter the race for _______.
Asian riches
Financed Columbus' voyages
Ferdinand and Isabella
Columbus sought a route to the East by _____.
going West
Explorer who concluded that the "New World" must be a continent and not part of Asia
Amerigo Vespucci
Line drawn by the Pope giving the "New World" to Spain & Africa & India to Portugal for colonization
Line of Demarcation
Adjusted the line of demarcation to the West, giving Portugal control of Brazil.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Commanded the first expedition to circumnavigate the world.
Ferdinand Magellan
To circle the world.
circumnavigate
His voyage proved the world was round & much larger than anyone believed.
Ferdinand Magellan
His voyage proved the lands where Columbus landed were not part of Asia.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese also colonized ___________ in South America.
Brazil
Lost out in Africa when other European countries began to colonize because they did not venture inland or establish colonies.
Portuguese
In the 1500s & 1600 became the most important trade item from Africa
Slaves
The slave trade in Africa was broadened by __.
European Participation
The slave trade filled the demand for ____.
cheap labor
Europeans seeking slaves seldom ventured into __________.
Africa's interior
European Slave Traders
Relied on African rulers and traders to seize captives and bring them to the coast.
Ruler of the Kongo, who tried to halt the slave trade in his lands.
Affonso I
Some African states disappeared because of the _____.
slave trade
Some new African States arose whose way of life depended on the ___.
slave trade
African slave trading state, unified by Osei Tutu in what is present day Ghana.
Asante kingdom
African states often waged war against one another to dominate the _________.
slave trade
Its leaders used wealth from the slave trade to build a strong army in what is present-day Nigeria.
Oyo Empire
First Europeans to challenge Portuguese domination of Asian trade.
Dutch
First permanent European settlement in Africa built by the Dutch to supply ships sailing around Africa.
Cape Town
Dutch farmers who settled around Cape Town in South Africa.
Boers
Muslim empire in India from 1526 to 1857.
Mughal Empire
Had the sovereign powers of a state, built an army and dominated Southeast Asia.
Dutch East India Company
Took over the Philippines and made it a key link in its trading empire.
Spain
At one point the Mughal empire was stronger than any European country, but eventually it lost power and the British and French fought for control of _____.
India
Both the British and the French East India Companies used these India soldiers in their armies.
sepoys
By the late 1700s it controlled most of India
British East India Company
Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, allowed trade with Europeans and accepted European missionaries.
Ming Dynasty
Seized Beijing in 1644 and set up the Qing Dynasty in China.
Manchu's
Manchurian dynasty of China.
Qing
Both the Ming & the Qing practiced a policy of ___.
Restricted foreign trade
Because of its exclusion of foreigners it became known as the "Hermit Kingdom."
Korea
Unlike the Chinese or the Koreans, the Japanese at first ______________.
welcomed Westerners
When many Japanese were converted by the Jesuits, the Tokugawa Shoguns worried that the Japanese Christians would be loyal to the Pope over ___________.
Japanese leaders
Expelled foreign missionaries and persecuted Japanese Christians.
Tokugawa Shoguns
For 200 years Japan remained __________.
isolated
Columbus first meeting with Native Americans began a recurring cycle of _________ across the Western Hemisphere.
encounter, conquest & death
Spanish who came to America "to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do."
Conquistadors
Conquistador who conquered Aztec Mexico for Spain.
Hernan Cortes
Empire that ruled Mexico before Spanish invasion.
Aztec
Ruler of Aztec Empire at time of Spanish invasion.
Moctezuma
Spanish advantage in fighting Aztecs & Incas.
horses and guns
Conquistador who conquered Peru's Inca Empire.
Francisco Pizarro
Empire in Peru conquered by Spanish.
Inca
Included islands in the West Indies, Central, America, Mexico, much of South America, and parts of present day U.S.
Spanish American Empire
Spain's two goals for American empire.
exploit its wealth & convert native Americans to Christianity
Gave Conquistadors the right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area. (granted by Spanish monarch)
Encomienda
European weapon that killed (by far) the most native Americans.
disease
Most valuable exports from Spanish colonies.
gold & silver
Representatives appointed by the Spanish Monarch who ruled in his name.
viceroys
In the 1600s American colonies based their economies on agricultural products that required ____________.
intensive labor.
At his insistence the crown did pass laws against the enslavement and mistreatment of Native Americans.
Las Casas
Native Americans who labored to pay impossible debts created by landlords.
Peons
To meet the intensive labor demands in the American colonies, plantation owner's used _______.
Enslaved Africans
People born in Europe filled the highest positions in Spanish Colonial government.
Peninsulares
American born descendents of Spanish settlers, second highest on social scale.
Creoles
People of mixed European and Native American descent.
Mestizos
People of mixed European & African descent.
Mulattoes
Mestizos & Mulattoes were the third rung of the colonial __________.
social scale
In the 1600s the French, Dutch, English and Spanish all competed for lands in _________.
North America
By the 1700 North America was dominated by __.
France & England
Explored much of Eastern Canada and claimed it for France.
Jacques Cartier
First permanent French settlement in North America, established in 1608.
Quebec
Most of their colonists were involved in fur trapping, fur trading and fishing.
French
In the early 1700s New France's population remained __________.
small
First permanent English colony established in 1607.
Jamestown
English protestants who settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts, because the rejected the Church of England.
Pilgrims
Agreement reached for governing the Plymouth colony.
Mayflower compact
War between France and England that started in the colonies and spread to the rest of the world where it became know as the Seven Years war.
French & Indian War
Ended the French & Indian war in 1763 and gave the British much of French territory in North America.
Treaty of Paris.
The slave trade was part of the ___________.
triangular trade
The trading pattern that developed among the American colonies, the West Indies, the coast of Africa, and the British isles.
triangular trade
Left their home ports carrying manufactured goods.
European ships
In West Africa ships captains exchanged their goods with local rulers for _________.
enslaved people
Enslaved Africans were sold in the colonies and the money was used to buy _________.
sugar, molasses, cotton and tobacco.
Ships returned to Europe to sell the goods _____________.
purchased in America
The transportation of African people to slave markets in the Americas.
Middle Passage
During the middle passage Africans were chained together in such a tight space that they could neither _________.
stand nor lie at full length
During the middle passage many Africans died of ________.
suffocation and disease
Many Africans resisted their enslavement by __________.
fleeing or rebellion
In the West Indies and some other areas the enslaved population came to outnumber the ___.
free population
In areas where the slave populations out numbered the free population the free population lived in constant fear of __________.
slave uprisings
Silver and gold flowing from the colonies to Europe resulted in great inflation.
Price Revolution
An economic system of private ownership of business that arose as a result of the price revolution.
capitalism
People who took financial risks and were the key to the rise of capitalism.
entrepreneurs
Fierce competition for trade and empires led to a new economic system called_____________.
Mercantilism
Theory that a nation's power depended upon its wealth (Gold & Silver Reserves.
Mercantilism
According to mercantilism a nation should increase its supply of gold and silver by carrying on a _____________.
favorable balance of trade
More exports than imports.
favorable balance of trade
In the mercantilist system colonies helped a country maintain a __________.
favorable balance of trade.
The enormous widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres that occurred after 1492.
Columbian exchange
The Columbian exchange transformed European, American, African & Asian _____.
ways of life
Tobacco, potatoes, and tomatoes moved from the _______________.
Western to Eastern hemisphere
The horse and other livestock moved from the __________.
Eastern to Western hemisphere