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63 Cards in this Set

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freeze-fracturing
technique in which a cell is first frozen and then broken with a knife so that the fracture reveals structures inside the cell when observed by electron microscope
heat fixation
Technique in which air-dried smears are passed through an open flame so that organisms are killed, adhere better to the slide, and take up dye more easily
active site
Area on the surface of an enzyme to which its substrate binds
flagellar staining
A technique for observing flagella by coating the surfaces of flagella with a dye or metal such as silver
iris diaphragm
adjustable device in a microscope that controls the amount of light passing through the specimen
transmission
The passage of light through an object
condenser
Device in a microscope that converges light beams so that they will pass through the specimen
parfocal
For a microscope, remaining in approximate focus when minor focus adjustments are made
differential stain
Use of two or more dyes to differentiate among bacterial species or to distinguish various structures of an organism; for example, the Gram stain
index of refraction
A measure of the amount that light rays bend when passing from one medium to another
atomic force microscope (AFM)
Advanced member of the family of scanning tunneling microscopes, allowing three-dimensional views of structures from atomic size to about 1 mm
hanging drop
A special type of wet mount often used with dark-field illumination to study motility of organisms
binocular
Referring to a light microscope having two eyepieces (oculars)
freeze-etching
Technique in which water is evaporated under vacuum from the freeze-fractured surface of a specimen before an observation with electron microscopy
absorption
Process in which light rays are neither passed through nor reflected off an object but are retained and either transformed to another form of energy or used in biological processes
monocular
Refers to a light microsciope having one eyepiece (ocular)
fluorescence microscopy
use of ultraviolet light in a microscope to excite molecules so that they release light of different colors
Schaeffer-Fulton spore staining
A differential stain used to make endospires easier to visualize
immersion oil
Substance used to avoid refraction at a glass-air interface when examining objects through a microscope
microscopy
The technology for making very small things visible to the unaided eye
fluorescent antibody staining
procedure in fluorescence microscopy that uses a fluorochrome attached to antibodies to detect the presence of an antigen
anionic dye
(also called acidic dye) An ionic compound, used for staining bacteria, in which the negative ion imparts the color
phosphorescence
Continued emission of light by an object when light rays no longer strike it
fluorescence
Emission of light of one color when irradiated with another, shorter wavelength of light
compound light microscope
A light microscope with more than one lens
TEM
(transmission electron microscope)
Type of electron microscope used to study internal structures of cells; very thin slices of specimens are used
refraction
The bending of light as it passes from one medium to another medium of different density
mordant
A chemical that helps a stain adhere to the cell or cell structure
ocular micrometer
A glass disk with an inscribed scale that is placed inside the eyepiece of a microscope; used to measure the actual size of an object being viewed
electron microscope
Microscope that uses a beam of electrons rather than a beam of light and electromagnets instaed of glass lenses to produce an image
wet mount
Microscopy technique in which a drop of fluid containing the organisms (often living) is placed on a slide
Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain
A differential stain for organisms that are not decolorized by acid in alcohol, such as the bacteria that cause Hansen's disease (leprosy) and tuberculosis
mechanical stage
Attachment to a microscope stage that holds the slide and allows precise control in moving the slide
Gram stain
A differential stain that uses crystal violet, iodine, alcohol, and safranin to differentiate bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria stain dark purple; Gram-negative ones stain pink/red
resolving power
A numerical measure of the resolution of an optical instrument
dark-field illumination
In light microscopy, the light that is refracted from an object rather than passing through it, resulting in a bright image on a dark background
cationic dye
(also called basic dye) An ionic compound, used for staining bacteria, in which the positive ion imparts the color
STM
(scanning tunneling microscope)
Also called scanning probe microscope; type of microscope in which electrons tunnel into each other's clouds, can show individual molecules, live specimens, and work underwater
simple stain
A single dye used to reveal basic cell shapes and arrangements
SEM
(Scanning Electron Microscope)
Type of electron microscope used to study the surfaces of a specimen
coarse adjustment
Focusing mechanism of a microscope that rapidly changes the distance between the objective lens and the specimen
Nomarski microscopy
Differential interference contrast microscopy; utilizes differences in refractive index to visualize structures, producing a nearly three-dimensional image
micrometer
(mm) Unit of measure equal to 0.000001 m or 10 ^-6 m; formerly called a micron (m)
shadow casting
The coating of electron microscopy specimens with a heavy metal, such as gold or palladium, to create a three-dimensional effect
Angstrom (A)
Unit of measurement equal to 0.0000000001 m, or 10210 m. No longer officially recognized
numerical aperature
The widest cone of light that can enter a lens
reflection
The bounding of light off an object
nanometer
(nm) Unit of measure equal to 0.000000001 m or 10 ^- 9 m; formerly called a millimicron (mm)
body tube
Microscope part that conveys an image from the objective to the eyepiece
light microscopy
The use of any type of microscope that uses visible light to make specimens observable
objective lens
lens in a microscope closest to the specimen that creates an enlarged image of the object viewed
phase-contrast microscopy
Use of a microscope having a condenser that accentuates small differences in the refractive index of various structures within the cell
luminescence
Process in which absorbed light rays are reemitted at longer wavelengths
bright-field illumination
illumination produced by the passage of visible light through the condenser of a light microscope
diffraction
Phenomenon in which light waves, as they pass through a small opening, are broken up into bands of different wavelengths
ocular lens
Lens in the microscope that further magnifies the image created by the objective lens
smear
A thin layer of liquid specimen spread out on a microscopic slide
fine adjustment
Focusing mechanism of a microscope that very slowly changes the distance between the objective lens and the specimen
electron micrograph
A "photograph" of an image taken with an electron microscope
resolution
The ability of an optical device to show two items as separate and discrete entities rather than a fuzzily overlapped image
stain
(also called dye) A molecule that can bind to a structure and give it color
total magnification
obtained by multiplying the magnifying power of the objective lens by the magnifying power of the ocular lens
negative staining
technique of staining the background around a specimen, leaving the specimen clear and unstained