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37 Cards in this Set

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What does cis mean?
Same chromosome
What does trans mean?
Different chromosomes (maternal/paternal)
What is said to exist if two recessive mutations give different phenotypes in the cis and trans configurations?
It is said they are allelic.
What is said if they give the same phenotype?
It is said they are alleles.
What is said if m1+/+m2 and m1m2/++ give the same phenotype (wild-type)?
It is said m1 and m2 are not alleles.
What is said if m1+/+m2 gives a phenotype and m1m2/++ is wild type?
It is said m1 and m2 are alleles.
What occured during the Superman cis/trans test?
The sup and clk alleles failed to complement, but both are semi dominant.
What does it mean by semi dominant?
It means m/+ has a phenotype.
Were the scientists able to make the cis double mutant?
No
Is euchromatin DNA lightly or heavily methylated?
It is not methylated much.
Is heterochromatin heavily methylated?
Usually it is.
What is added during phosphorylation?
A PO4 is added.
What is added during methylation?
A CH3 is added.
What is added during acetylation?
COO-CH3 is added.
What types of modifications are these?
These are protein modifications, not nucleotide modifications.
What types of enzymes does phosphorylation effect?
It effects kinases and phosphatases.
What types of modifications occur through methylation?
Chromodomain modification.
What types of modifications occur through acetylation?
Bromodomains.
What do these modifications lead to?
They lead to changes in heterochromatin/euchromatin.
How do these modifications logistically work?
They attract enzymes that remodel the chromatin.
What is the enzyme that controlls bolting and flowering?
Gibberellic acid.
Which locus is important in controlling flowering?
The flowering locus C (FLC) is important.
How does FLC work?
It represses flowering.
How do other pathways affect FLC?
Many pathways converge to turn FLC off.
What is an example of autonomous regulation?
Acetylation
What is an example of vernalization regulation?
Methylation
What does PAF effect?
Methylation
What does tri-methylation of K4 recruit?
It recruits a chromatin remodeling enzyme to FLC and keeps it active.
What is Huntington's chorea?
It is a late onset neurodegenerative disease.
Is it recessive or dominant and autosomal or sexual?
It is autosomal dominant.
Give two examples of symptoms resulting from H.C.?
Cognitive impairment and motor impairment.
What is Huntingtin?
It is a large protein that contains a triple repeat of CAG.
What is a normal level of CAG repeats?
6-35
What level of CAG repeats develop the disease?
>40
Do BLAST searches help in revealing the biochemical function of HC?
No.
What do drugs that inhibit histone deacetylation do to symptoms of HC?
They ameliorate (lessen) symptoms.
So how does the diseased Huntington act to hurt the sufferer?