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53 Cards in this Set

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Nucleoli
Irregular rounded structures in the nucleus. They are sites of RNA synthesis
Nuclear Envelope
The double membrane boundary around the nucleus. It contains many pores to allow certain molecules to pass in and out
Chromosome
A rod-like group of genes in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Tightly-coiled DNA, proteins
Chromatin
A stringy network of DNA and proteins in the nucleus. During mitosis and meiosis, it forms rods called chromosomes.
What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?
Both are types of active transport.

Endocytosis is the uptake of materials by the cell
Ex: phagocytosis, pinocytosis

Exocytosis is the release of materials from the cell into the environment when vesicles fuse with the cell membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of branching membranous channels located in the cytoplasm, which serves to transport materials within the cell. Rough E.R. contain ribosomes and are a site of protein synthesis. Smooth E.R. have no ribosomes and are a site of lipid synthesis.
Ribosome
The protein factory of the cell; they are located on the endoplasmic reticulum or in the cytoplasm (Composed of RNA and protein)
Mitochondria
"Powerhouse of the cell"
Carry on cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells
Cristae
The foldings of the inner membrane of the mitochondria. ATP formation happens here.
What are 3 factors affecting enzyme function?
1. pH
2. Temperature
3. Relative amounts of enzyme and substrate
Microtubules
Tubular protein structures involved with chromosome movement during cell division. They compose the internal structure of cilia and flagella and provide cell shape
Centrioles
Animal cell structures made of microtubules; they organize microtubule assembly of the spindle during mitosis and meiosis.
Cytoskeleton
A network of microtubules and other protein filaments that supports the cell structure and drives cell movement.
Cilia
Short hairlike appendages specialized for motion. They enable some protista to move. They also move material along a cell or tissue.
What is the function of the cell wall?
Protection and Support
What is the function of the chloroplast?
Site of Photosynthesis
What is the function of cilia and flagella?
Movement
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
Transport System
What is the function of the golgi body?
Packages and Secretes Proteins
What is the function of the lysosome?
Intracellular Digestion
What is the function of the mitochondria?
Sites of Cellular Respiration
What is the function of the nucleus?
Controls Cell Activities
What is the function of ribosomes?
Synthesis of Protein
What is the function of vacuoles?
Storage
What is the function of cell or plasma membrane?
Regulates Transport of Substances into/out of cell
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell that does not have a membrane - bound nucleus or organelles

Monerans are comprised of this kind of cell.
Eukaryotic Cell
A cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles; all kingdoms except monera contain this type of cell.
Diffusion
The movement of substance from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration of the substance
Osmosis
The diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane
Selectively Permeable
Property of biological membranes that allows only selected substances to pass through
Active Transport
The movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient; requires an input of cellular energy; usually in the form of ATP.
Carbohydrate
List 5 examples and function in human body
A compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1
(Glucose, Fructose, Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen) - Human body's main energy source
Lipid
List 3 examples and function in human body
Compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Composed of 2 basic compounds - glycerol and fatty acids.
(Fats, oils, waxes)
Function: energy storage, cushioning, insulation
Protein
List 2 examples and function in human body
An organic compound made of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acids

1. Enzymes
2. Gelatin
3. Collagen
4. Hemoglobin

Functions: structural components of cells, organic catalysts, antibodies, hormones
Nucleic Acid

List 2 examples and the function in the human body
Organic compound made of nucleotides

1. DNA
2. RNA

Both code instructions for protein synthesis
Hydrolysis
Catabolic reaction that splits apart molecules and consumes water
Dehydration Synthesis
The process where small molecules are bonded to make a larger molecule and water is released.

For example: two glucose ( a monosaccharide) molecules are linked to form maltose (a dissaccharide)
Amino Acids
The building blocks of protein
-lysine, valine, arginine, alanine, glycine, serine... etc
Polypeptide
A chain of amino acids that make up protein
Saturated Fat
The carbon chain of the fatty acid is joined by single bonds and has about twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms; usually solid at room temperature
Ex: lard, butter
Unsaturated Fat
The fatty acid chain contains some double covalent bonds and less than twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms; usually liquid at room temperature
Ex: oil
Which nitrogenous bases pair in DNA?
adenine & thymine
cytosine & guanine
Which nitrogenous bases pair in RNA?
adenine & uracil
cytosine & guanine
Homozygous
Having 2 identical alleles for a trait
Ex: BB or bb
Heterozygous
Having 2 different alleles for a trait
Ex: Bb or Tt
Phenotype
The expression of a genotype; can be an appearance or function of an organism
Ex: tail, blue eyes, type B blood
Genotype
The genetic make-up of an organism; the actual genes an organism has for a trait

Ex: a cat with a brown-eyed phenotype may have a heterozygous genotype (one allele for brown, one allele for blue)
Allele
One of two or more different forms of a gene
Mendel's Law of Segregation
Modern Form: During meiosis homologous chromosomes (with the alleles they carry) separate and go to different gamete cells.
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
The inheritance of alleles on one homologous chromosome pair has no effect on the inheritance of alleles on a different homologous chromosome pair
Summarize the work of Thomas Hunt Morgan
Received the Nobel prize for research on a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

He located certain genes on the chromosomes (drew maps) discovered x-linked genes
Linkage
Genes which are inherited together because they are located on the same chromosome; they do not independently assort
Crossing Over
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange genes; results in genetic recombination