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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1. What is the general function of endoplasmic reticulum?
2. What is the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum(Smooth ER)?
3. What is the function of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?
1. Endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the transport of materials throughout the cell.
2. Smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis and poison detoxification, and it is involved in protein transport within the cell.
3. RER serves as an attachment point for ribosomes, which functions in protein synthesis for membrane bound proteins and proteins to be execreted from the cell.
1. (T/F)proteins synthesis by RER are secreted directly into the cytoplasm.
2. What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
3. What happens to a secretory vescicle after it is released from the Golgi apparatus?
1. False, they are secreted into the cisternae of RER and then sent to smooth ER, where they are secreted into vescicles.
2. The Golgi apparatus receives vesicles from smooth ER, modifies them, and repackages them into vesicles from distribution.
3. A secretory vesicle from the Golgi fuses with the cell membrane to release its contents via exocytosis.
1.(T/F) Vesicles an vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs involved in transport and storage of cellular materials.
2. What is a lysosome?
3. (T/F) Lysosomes fuse with endocytotic vesicles and help digest their contents.
1. True
2. A lysosome is a membrane-bound vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes involved in intracellular digestion.
3. True
1. How does the pH in the interior of a lysosome compare with the pH in the rest of the cell?
2. What would happen if a lysosome released its contents into the cytoplasm?
3. What is the function of peroxisomes?
1. The interior of a lysosome is acidic and therefore has a lower pH than the rest of the cell.
2. The hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome would digest the organelles and kill the cell. This process is known as autolysis.
3. Peroxisomes make hydrogen peroxide and digest fats into smaller molecules.
1. What is the function of mitochondria?
2. (T/F) Mitochondria have their own circular DNA.
3. Do mitochondria replicate in a manner similar to a cell's other organelles?
1. Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration and supply most of the cell's energy.
2. True
3. No, they replicate via binary fission.
1. (T/F) Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar structures and both are considered to be semi-autonomous.
2. What is the function of a cell wall?
2. True
3. A cell wall protects the cell from external stimuli and desiccation.
1. What is the function of centrioles?
2. What is a centrosome?
3. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
1. Centrioles are involved in spindle formation during cell replication. They are found only in animal cells.
2. The centrosome is the region of a cell that contains the centrioles.
3. The cytoskeleton gives mechanical support, maintains the cell's shape, and functions in motility.
1. What is the function of microtubules?
2. (T/F) Cilia and flagella are specialized arrangements of microfilaments and function in cell motility.
3. (T/F) Microfilaments are solid rods of actin and are involved in cell movement and cell wall support.
1. Microtubule maintain cell shape, form the spindle apparatus and provide tracks along which organelles can move.
2. False, while cilia and flagella do function in cell motility, they are composed of microtubules.
3. True.
1. (T/F) Simple diffusion is a passive process that requires energy.
2. Define osmosis.
3. what would happen to a cell if it were put in a hypertonic solution?
1. False, simple diffusion is a passive process and therefore DOES NOT require energy.
2. Osmosis is the simple diffusion of water from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.
3. A hypertonic solution would cause water to flow out of a cell and cause the cell to shrink.
1. (T/F) A hypotonic solution will cause water to flow into a cell, causing it to swell.
2. Define isotonic.
3. Define facilitated diffusion.
1. True
2. A medium and a cell are said to be isotonic when the solute concentrations of the medium and the cell are equal.
3. Facilitated diffusion is the net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient with the help of carrier molecules.
1. (T/F) Facilitated diffusion requires energy.
2. Define active transport.
3. (T/F) Active transport requires energy.
1. False, all forms of diffusion, including facilitated diffusion, are passive processes.
2. Active transport is the net movement of dissolved particles against their concentration gradient with the help of carrier molecules. This process requires ATP.
3. True.
1. What is endocytosis?
2. What is exocytosis?
3. What is the difference between pinocytosis and phagocytosis?
1. Endocytosis is a process in which the cell membrane invaginates, forming an intracellular vesicle containing extracellular medium.
2. Exocytosis is a process in which a vesicle whithin the cell fuses with the cell membrane and release its contents to the extracellular medium.
3. Pinocytosis is the endocytosis of liquids and small particles, whereas phagocytosis is the endocytosis of large particles.
1. What are the four basic types of tissue found in the body?
2. What are the components of a virus?
3. What kinds of nucleic acid are found in virus?
1. epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle.
2. A protein coat and nucleic acid.
3. Single or double stranded DNA or RNA
1. (T/F) viruses are obligate intracellular parasited.
2. What is a bacteriophage?
3. What is the genetic material of a virus?
1. True
2. A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria only.
3. The genetic material of a virus can be DNA or RNA.
1. How do enzymes speed up a reaction?
2. (T/F) Enzymes get used up during the course of a reaction.
3. (T/F) Enzymes are very selective in the reactions they catalyze.
1. Enzymes are protein catalysts that accelerate a reaction by reducing the amount of activation energy required.
2. False, enzymes are catalysts and therefore don't get used up during the course of a reaction.
3. True.
1. What is a substrate?
2. What is an active site?
3. What is the lock and key theory?
1. A substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts.
2. An active site is the area of an enzyme to which a substrate binds.
3. The lock and key theory states that an enzyme and it's corresponding active site are exactly complementary.
1. (T/F) the induced fit hypothesis hold that an enzyme causes a conformational change in its corresponding active site to facilitate substrate binding.
2. What is a cofactor?
3. What is the difference between an apoenzyme and a holoenzyme?
2. A cofactor is a nonprotein molecule that is incorporated into an enzyme and is required for proper functioning.
3. An apoenzyme is an enzyme without its corresponding cofactor, A holo enzyme contains its cofactor.
1. What is a coenzyme?
2. what is a prosthetic group?
3. (T/F) most coenzymes are synthesized by the body.
1. A coenzyme is an organic cofactor for an enzymatic reaction.
2. a tightly bound cofactor is also known as aprosthetic group.
3. False, most coenzyme are obtained from outside sources.
1. What happens to the free energy of a reaction if it is catalyzed by an enzyme?
2. What happens as the concentration of substrate is increased in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?
3.(T/F) at very high concentration of substrate, reaction rate approximates Vmax.
1. Nothing.
2. The reaction rate increases until most of the active sites are filled and then the reaction rate reaches a plateau.
3. True.
1. (T/F) All enzyme in the body are proteins.
2. What is the optimal pH for the enzymes of glycolysis?
3. What is the optimal temperature for most enzymes in the body?
1. False, ribozymes are RNA enzymes.
2. 7
3. 37
1. (T/F) All enzymes in the body operate most efficiently at a pH of around 7.2.
2. What is an allosteric enzyme?
3. What happens to an enzyme in the presence of an allosteric inhibitor?
1. False, enzymes in the digestive tract work best at acidic and basic pH's
2. An allosteric enzyme is an enzyme with two or more active sites. An Allosteric enzyme oscillates between an active and inactive configuration.
3. An Allosteric inhibitor prevents an enzyme from binding to its substrate by stabilizing the inactive configuration.
1. (T/F) a non-competitive inhibitor can be overcome by increasing the concentration of substrate.
2. (T/F) A competitive inhibitor binds at the active site and therefore can be overcome by increasing the concentration of substrate.
3. How can a non-competitive inhibitor's effect be reversed?
1. False, a non-competitive inhibitor doesn't bind at the active site and therefore doesn't compete with the substrate.
2. True, a competitive inhibitor competes with the substrate for active sites.
3. Through the addition of a compound having a greater affinity for the inhibitor that the inhibitor has for the enzyme.
1. (T/F) irreversible inhibition involes permanent damage to the active site.
2. What is a zymogen?
3. How is a zymogen activated? Give some examples of zymogens.
1. True
2. A zymogen is an inactive form of an enzyme.
3. A zymogen is activated when a part of it is cleaved off. ex: pepsin and pepsinogen.