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20 Cards in this Set

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Structure of the atom
Atom-smallest unit of the element. Nucleus contains protons and neutorns, outside - electrons.
# of electrons = # of protons.
Isotope
Two atoms of the same element that differ in number of neutrons.
Anion
Negatively charged ion
Cation
Positively charged ion
First Quantum number
Shell number, n.Related to the size and energy of the orbital. Can be any whole number , starting with 1.Greater n, greater e's energy and distance from nucleus.
Second Quantum number
Subshell #, L. Describes shape of e's orbital. n-1.
Third Quantum Number
Orbital #, M(l). Describes 3 dimensional orientation of the orbital.
Fourth Quantum Numbr
Spin number, M(s). E's intrinsic magnetism. Either +1/2 -spin up or -1/2 - spin down.
Orbital
3 dimensional region around the nucleus in which e'n is most likely to be found.
Maximum # of e's that go into subshells
s - 2
p-6
d-10
f-14
E'n configurations rules
1) e's occupy lowest energy levels available
2)E's in the same subshell occupy available orbitals singly before pairing up
3)No two e's can have same set of quantum numbers
Diamagnetic Atom
Atom that has all of e's paired, leaving no net magnetic field, repelled by external mag. field.
Paramagnetic Atom
Atom that has e's that are not all spin paired, attracted to external mag field.
Strong Nuclear Force
Force that holds together protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Alpha Decay
Alpha particle - 2 protons and 2 neutrons (He 4/2). parents atomic number reduced by 2, mass number by 4)
Pb (210/84)--> Pb(206/82)
Beta Decay
beta particle - e'n (0/-1)
Mass # of the daughter nucleus same, atomic # greater by 1
C (14/6)---> C (14/7) + e (0/-1)
positron decay
positron - e's antiparticle, e'n with positive charge. Mass # of daughter nucleus same, atomic # less by 1
C (14/6)---> C (14/5) + e (0/1)
Gamma decay
Gamma particle - photon ( high frequency and energy), dont have mass/charge, dont change anyting.
Half life
t1/2, time it takes for 1/2 of the radioactive sampple to decay.
Excited state of e'n
E'ns become excited when they gain energy by absorbing photon