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215 Cards in this Set

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what 2 systems deal w fluids in the body?
cardiovasc system
lymphatic system
right side of h pumps ____________ bl into the lungs
deoxygenated
right side of heart pumps deoxy bl into lungs via?
pulmonary arteries
pulmonary veins carry ___________ bl
oxygenated
oxygen bl is carried from lungs to heart by?
pulmonary veins
heart
left ventr leads to?
aorta
left ventr-- aorta--?
arteries
left ventr---aorta-- arteries--?
arterioles
left ventr--- aorta--arteries---arterioles---?
capillaries
blood returning from the body returns via?
infer vena cava
jugular vein-- superior vena cava
oxgenated bl is suppl to heart by?
coronary arter
__________ return deoxygen bl to right side of heart
coronary veins and coronary sinus
the first bl vess branching off the aorta is?
coronary arteries
what are the 3 portal systems?
liver hepatic portal circul
kidneys
brain- hypophyseal portal circul
liver portal system is called?
hepatic portal circul
portal syst in brain is called?
hypophyseal portal circul
myocardial ishchemia is
when heart does not get en O, nutr
when the heart does not get en O or nutr it is called?
myocardial ischemia
most common sysmpt of myocardial ischemia is?
angina
angina is?
chest pain
myocardial infaction is when?
irrev dam of heart
most oommon cause of decr coronary heart flow?
atherosclerosis
plaque on artery is mostly?
fibrofatty plaque made of mostly cholesterol
heart consists of ________ pumps
2
heat upper chambers are?
atria
heart lower chambers are?
ventricles
___________ are thin walled, ventricles are muscular
atria
___________ valves are located betw atria and ventr
atrioventricular
valve betw atria and ventr on the right side is called?
tricuspid valve
tricuspid valve is located?
betw right atria and right ventr
tricuspid valve has how many cusp?
3
valve on left side of heart is called?
mitral valve
mitral valve has ________ cusps?
2
what are the 2 valves in the heart?
tricuspid and mitral valve
semilunar valves are located?
1. left ventr and aorta
2. right ventr and pulmonary artery
lub dub
first sound is called?
S1
lub dub
lub is when?
av valves close to prev backflow into atria
lub dub
dub is when?
2 semilunar valves close at concl of systole
s2 is the ____________ sound
dub
heartbeat is made up of?
systole,
diastole
systole is when?
ventr contract
diastole is when?
cardiac muscle relaxes
cardiac output is =
total vol of bl left ventr pumps out per minute
T or F
cardiac output=hr X stroke vol
T
hr X str vol=?
cardiac output
stroke volume is?
vol of bl pumped out of the left ventr per contract
vol of bl pumped out of the left ventr per contract is?
stroke volume
SA node is locat?
in wall of the right atrium
SA node--- atria---- av node---- bundle of his (av bundle)---- ?
purkinje fibers
sa node--- atria--- ? --- bundle of his --- ??
atria-- av node ---- bundle of his (av bundle) --- purkinje fibers
the av node conducts
quickly or slowly?
slowly
ekg
p wave occurs immed bef?
the atria contract
ekg
qrs compl occurs just bef?
the ventr contract
ekg
T wave represents?
ventric repolarizat
the _________________ system modif the rate of heart contract
auton nerv syst
parasympath innerv the heart via?
vagus nerve
parasympth nerv syst thr vagus nerve causes a?
decr hr
sympath nerv systm innerv the heart via?
cervical and upper thoracic ganglia
the cerv and upper thoracic ganglia are part of the ?
sympath system
sympath nerv systm innerv the heart and causes?
an incr in hr
nerve impulses trav thr vagus nerve will __________ hr
decre
nerve impulses travel thr cerv and upper thoracic ganglia will ___________ hr
incre
adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine which ____________ hr
increases
adrenal medulla secretes _____________ which incre hr
epinephrine
3 types of bl vess?
arteries
veins
capillaries
_____________ are thick walled, musc, elastic vess
arteries
t or f
all veins carry deoxyg bl
f
most do
except pulm veins
which artery carries deoxy bl?
pulm arteries
bl flow in veins is driven by ?
their compress by skel muslces
larger veins have ________ to prev backflow
valves
pulmonary thromboemboli are
bl clots
what things can cause blood clots?
injury
extreme inact
hypercoagulable state
rbc have to travel thr capillaries in ?
single file
bl press is the F/A the bl exerts on?
bl vessels
sphygmomanometer measures?
bl press
you measure bl press with?
sphygmomanometer
bl press is ?/?
syst/diastol
hum body has _________ l of blood
4-6
bl is _______ liquid and _________ cellular compon
55% liq
45% cell compon
plasma is?
liq portio of the blood
plasma has what in it?
nutr, salts, resp gases, wastes, hormones, bl prot
name 3 bl prot?
immunoglobulins
albumin
fibrinogen
cell compon of bl are?
erythrocytes
leukocytes
platelets
each erythr has ________ molec of hemoglobin
250 million
what is the shape of erythrocytes
biconcave, disk like shape
the biconcave shape of erythro give them?
incre surf area
erythr form in ?
stem c in bone marrow
in bone marrow erythr lose their?
nuclei, mitochond, membran organelles
eryth lack?
nuclei, mitoch, membran organ
eryth are aerobic or anaerob
anaerob
which organs phagocy eryth?
spleen and liver
_____________ eryth per mm3 of bl
five million
leuk arise from stem c in ?
marrow of long bones
5000-10000 _______________ per mm3 of bl
leukocytes
3 types of leuk are?
granular leukocytes
lymphocytes
monocytes
granular leukocytes are?
neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils
which leuk play an import role in inflamm, allerg react, pus form and destr of bact?
neutroph
basoph
eosinoph
immune response is mediat by what c?
lymphocytes
where are lymphocytes made?
lymph nodes
tonsils, spleen, appendix, thymus, bone marrow
who makes antibodies?
lymphocytes
2 types of lymph are?
b lymph
t lymph
monocytes bec __________ when they enter the tiss
macroph
what do monocytes do?
phagocy foreign matter and organ
macroph have greater phagocy ability than?
monocytes
platelets form in the?
bone marrow
platelets do not have?
nuclei
there are _____________ platelets per mm3 of bl
250,000-500,000
what are the four bl groups?
A
B
AB
O
what are the 2 major gr of rbc antigens?
ABO gr
Rh factor
A bl type makes what antibodies?
anti-B
AB is the ?
universal recipient
O is the ?
universal donor
O makes antibodies to?
anti A and anti B
Rh- woman has to be careful during her sec preg if during her first preg?
she had an Rh+
erythroblastosis fetalis is devel by a woman who is?
rh-
but had a rh+ baby
What do you give the Rh- mother to help suppress the devel of act immun
RhoGAM
Rh factor is a?
antigen on surf of rbc
rh- mom
she will endanger her?
second rh- baby, not her first
severe anemia in a fetus due to rh+/rh- issues is called?
erythroblastosis fetalis
why doesnt ABO blood type mismatches cause probl with preg women?
bec anti ABO blood type antib cant cross the placenta
hemoglob has _________ chains
4 polypeptides
each hemoglob polypeptide chain has a
heme group
each hemogl molec can bind __________ oxy
4
hemoglob has ____________ effects
allosteric
the allosteric effect of hemogl causes the dissociation curve to have what shape?
S-shaped
Hemoglobin has a ______________ dissoiation curve
s-shaped
oxyg dissoc curve is _________ static
not
oxy dissoc curve can shift to?
the left or right
in tiss, the oxyg dissoc curve __________ shifts
right,
oxyg dissoc curve
a right shift means?
for a given part press of Oxy, less Oxy will be bound to hemoglob
what things cause a right shift in oxy dissoc curve?
incre in partial press of CO2
decre in pH
incre in temp
in the lungs, the oxy dissoc curve shifts?
to the left
why does the oxy dissoc curve shift to the left in teh lungs?
to max Oxy loading
fetal hemoglob oxy dissoc curve is shifted to the ?
left
in erythroc
CO2 comb with?
H2O
in erythr
CO2 + H2O --->
carbonic acid
H2CO3
carbonic acid is?
H2CO3
H2CO3 dissoc into?
HCO3 and H+
HCO3 is
bicarbonate ion
bohr effect is due to?
CO2, H+, O2
bohr eff
increas concentr of H+ do what?
decre hemogl O2 affinity
increas pH and CO2 due what to hemoglobin?
decr its affin for O2
in the lungs _______________- reassoc to form CO2 and H2O
HCO3 and H+
format and dissoc of carbon acid are catalyzed by?
carbonic anyhdrase
carbonic hydrase does what/
catal format and dissoc of carbonic acid
most carbon dioxide is found?
dissolved in plasma as HCO3
only a small percent of CO2 is bound to?
hemoglobin as carboxyhemoglobin
aa and simple sugars are transp to liver via?
hepatic portal vein
fats go from sm intest to?
lymphatic syst thr lymph capillaries
fats enter bloodstream via?
large veins of the neck
fats-- small intest-- lymph vess--- ?
large veins of neck
hydrostatic press at arteriole end of capillaries is _________ hydrostat press of surr tissue fluids
greater than
why does fluid move back into the capillar at the venule end?
bec of osmotic press
bec bl has a higher solute concentr than tissue fluid.
exch of material in capill is influenc by?
hydrostat press and osmotic press
_____________ press pushes fluid out of vessels
hydrostatic
__________ press pulls fluid back into vessels
osmotic
osmotic press is depend on?
number of particles dissolv in plasma
hydrost press is depend on ?>
bl press driven by heart
arteriole end of capill
hydrost press is ?
oppos osmotic press is?
36 mm Hg
oppos osmot press is 25 mm Hg
platel and damag tissue secrete?
clotting factor
thromboplastin
thromblastin
cofactors?
calcium, vitamin K
trhomboplastin w cofact calc and vitamin K conv _______ to its active form
prothrombin to thrombin
thrombin conv ____________ into ___________
fibrinogen to fibrin
thread of _______ coat the damaged are and trap bl c
fibrin
to form a clot
throboplastin---??? --- thrombin--- frbrinogen--- fibrin
prothrombin
hemophiliacs lack
an agent involv in clot format
immune syst has what 2 mech?
humoral immun
c med immun
humoral immunit involves prod of?
antibod
cell med immunt involves?
cells that combat fungal and viral infect
Igs are ?
immunoglobulins
Igs do what?
attract oth c
cause antig to clump tog
causing the antigens to clump tog is?
agglutination
Igs is composed of?
2 heavy chains
2 light chains
Igs the chains are held tog by?
disulfide linkages and noncova bonds
Igs
antigen binding sites are the ________ regions
variable
Igs
have a variable and ____________ region
constant
five type of const regions?
GMADE
G MADE are
the five type of const regions
lymphocytes
B c form in ?
the bone marrow, different in the spleen, lymph nodes, and oth lyph org
where do B c different?
spleen, lymph nodes, oth lymph organs
B C when expos to antigen bec?
memory c, plasma c (effect c)
in primary resp of B c?
bec memory c
bec plasma c
plasma c are also called?
effector c
second expos to antigen will cause a ___________ response
secondary
active immun is prod of?
Igs dur immune resp
vacination confers?
active immun
passive immunity involves?
transf of Igs made by other organ
passive immun is __________ lasting
active immun is ________ lasting
passive-short
active- long
cell mediat immun are what c?
t cells
T c mature in bone marrow and mature in?
thymus
T c act against?
c that have fungus or virus
T c differ into?
cytotoxic t c
helper t c
suppressor t c
memory c
cytotoxic t c do what?
destroy antigens direct
helper T c activate?
other B and T c by secreting lymphokines
helper T c secrete?
lymphokines
lympholines are also called?
interleukins
___________ T c decre the activ of other B and T against antigens
suppressor T c
autoimmune response
body mistakes its own c as antigens
lack of b c will lead to recurrent?
bact infect
DiGeorge's syndrome affects?
T c disorder resulting in underdev or absence of thymus gland
DiGeorge's syndrome
a person will have normal?
Igs.
DiGeorge's syndrome
children will have proble with ___________ infectinos
viral and fungal
non spec defenses against disease?
skin- has sweat w enzymes
ciliated musc epithel
macrophages
inflammat resp
inflamm resp
injured c release?
histamine
histamine does what?
causes bl vess to dilate, incre bl flow to damaged region
attracts granulocytes to injury
c under viral attack make?
interferon
interferon is made by cells when they?
are under viral attack
lymphatic syst is a _________ circul syst
secondary
lymph is also called?
interstitial fluid
lymph vessels transport?
lymph
lacteals are also called?
lymph capillaries
lymph capill collect fats by absorbing?
chylomicrons in sm intest
lymph vessels have ___________ to prev backflow
valves
lymph flow is caused by?
mov of skel muscles
contract of lymphat vessels
lymph nodes are?
swellings along lymph vessels
that have phagocytic c (leukocytes)
filter lymph