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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, a good, a service, or an idea by an identified sponsor
product advertisments
pioneering, competitive, and reminder focused advertisments on selling a good or service
institutional advertisements
objective is to build goodwill or an image for an organization rather than promote a specific good or service
the number of different people or households exposed to an advertisement
the percentage of households in a market that are tuned to a particular TV show or radio station
the average number of times a person in the target audience is exposed to a message or advertisement
gross rating points
reach is multiplied by frequency, an advertiser will obtain a commonly used reference number
cost per thousand
refers to the cost of reaching 1000 individuals or households with the advertising message in a given medium
are program-length advertisments that take an educational approach to communication with potential customers
conducted before the advertisements are placed in any medium
full-service agency
provides the most complete range of services, including market research, media selection, copy development, artwork and production
limited-service agency
specializein one aspect of the advertising process
in-house agencies
made up of the company's own advertising staff; may provide full services or a limited range of services
advertisements may go through these after it has been shown to the target audience to determine whether it accomplished its intended purpose
customer-oriented sales promotion
are sales tools used to support a company's advertising and personal selling
product placement
involves the use of a brand-name product in a movie, television show, video, or commercial for another product
cooperative advertising
encouraging both better quality and greater quantity in the local advertising efforts of resellers
publicity tools
are available to the public relations director; methods of obtaining nonpersonal presentation of an organization, good, or serivce without direct cost
personal selling
involves the two-way flow of communication between a buyer and seller, often in a face-to-face encounter, designed to influence a person's or group's purchase decision
sales management
involves planning the selling program and implementing and controlling the personal selling effort of the firm
relationship selling
the practice of building ties to customers based on a saleperson's attention and commitmentto customer needs over time
partnership selling
buyers and sellers combine their expertise and resources to create customized solutions; commit to joint planning; and share customers, competitive, and company information for their mutual benefit
order taker
processes routine orders or reorders for products that were already sold by the company
order getter
sells in a conventional sense and identifies prospective customers, provides customers with information, persuades customer to buy, closes sales, and follows up on customers'use of a product or service
missionary salepeople
do no directly solicit orders buy rather concentrate on performing promotional activities and introducing new products
sales engineer
is a salesperson who specializes in identifying, analyzing, and solving customer problems and brings know-how and technical expertise to the selling situation buy often does not actually sell products and services
team selling
the practice of using an entire team of professionals in selling to and servicing major customers
personal selling process
consists of six stages--prospecting, preapproach, approach, presentation, close, follow-up
stimulus-response presentation
asuumes that given the appropriate stimulus by a saleperson, the prospect will buy
formula selling presentation
is based on the view that a presentation consists of information that must be provided in an accurate, thorough, and step-by-step manner to inform the prespect
includes all activities involved in selling, renting and providing goods and services to ultimate customers for personal, family or household use
form of ownership
distinguishes retail outlets based on whether individuals, corporate chains, or contractual systems own the outlet
level of service
is used to describe the degree of service provided to the customer
merchanside line
describes how many different types of products a store carries and in what assortment
depth of product line
means that the store carries a large assortment of each item
breadth of product line
refers to the variety of different items a store carries
scrambled merchandising
offering several unrelated product lines in a single store
large stores based on a simple concept: offer consumers everything in a single outlet; successful in Europe
intertype competition
competition between very dissimilar types of retail outlets
involves using the telephone to interact with and sell directly to consumers
retail positioning matrix
a matrix developed by the MAC Group Inc.; positions outlets on two dimensions, breadth of product line and value added
retailing mix
includes activities related to managing the store and the merchandise in the store
breakage and theft of merchandise by customers and employees
off-price retailing
involves selling brand-name merchandise at lower than regular prices
central business district
the oldest retail setting, the communities downtown area
regional shopping centers
consist of 50 to 150 stores that typically attract customers who live or work within a 5-to-10 mile range
community shopping center
typically has one primary store and often about 20 to 40 smaller outlets
strip location
to serve people who are within a 5-to-10-minute drive
power center
a huge shopping strip with multiple anchor (or national) stores
category management
assigns a manager with the responsibility for selecting all products that consumers in a market segment might view as substitutes for each other, with the objective of maximizing sales and profits in the category
wheel of retailing
describes how new forms of retail outlets enter the market
retail life cycle
the process of growth and decline that retail outlets, like products, experience
multichannel reatilers
utilize and intergrate a combination of tradional store formats such as catalogs, television, and online retailing
promotional mix
the combination of one or more types of communication tools
integrated marketing communications
designing marketing communications programs that coordinate all promotional activities-advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing-to provide a consistent message across all audiences
the process of conveying a message to others and requires six elements: a source, a message, a channel of communication, a receiver, and the processes of encoding and decoding
may be a company or person who has information to convey
information sent by a source
the process of having the sender transform an idea into a set of symbols
the process of having the receiver take a set of symbols, the message, and trandform them back to an idea
field of experience
a similar understanding and knowledge they apply to the message
the impact the message had on the receiver's knowledge attitudes or behaviors
the sender's interpretation of the response and indicated whether the message was decoded and understood as intended
includes extraneous factors that can work against effectivev communication by distorting a message or the feedback received
any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea by an identified sponsor
personal selling
defined as the two-way flow of communication between a buyer and a seller, designed to influence a person's or group's purchase decision
public relations
a form of communication management that seeks to influence the feelings, opinions, or beliefs held by customers, prospective customers, stockholders, suppliers, employees, and other publics about a company and its products or services
a nonpersonal, indirectly paid presentation of an organization, good, or service
sales promotion
a short-term inducement of value offered to arouse interest in buying a good or service
direct marketing
uses direct communication with consumers to generate a response in the form of an order, a request for futher information, or a visit to a retail outlet
push strategy
directing the promotinoal mix to channel members to gain their cooperation in ordering and stocking the product
pull strategy
directing the promotional mix at ultimate consumers to encourage them to ask the reatiler for the product
hierarchy of effects
the sequence of stages a prospecitve buyer goes through from initail awareness of a product to eventual action
the consumer's ability to recognize and remember the product or brand name
an increase in the consumer's desire to learn about some of the features of the product or brand
the consumer's appraisal of the product or brand on oimportant attributes
the consumer's actual first purchase and use of the product or brand
through a favorable experience on the first trial, the consumer's repeated purchase and use of the product or brand
percentage of sales budgeting
funds are allocated to promotion as a percentage of past or anticipated sales, in terms of either dollars or units sold
competitive parity budgeting
matching the competitors absolute level of spending or the proportion per point of market share
all-you-can-afford budgeting
money is allocated to promotion only after all other budget items are covered
objective and task budgeting
whereby the company determines its promotion objectives, outlines the tasks to accomplish these objectives and determiens the promotion cost of performing these tasks
direct orders
the result of offers that contain all the information necessary for a prospective buyer to make a decision to purchase and complete the transaction
lead generation
the result of an offer designed to generate interest in a product or service and a request of additional information
traffic generation
the outcome of an offer designed to motivate people to visit a business
trade-oriented sales promotions
sales tools used to support a company's advertising and personal selling directed to wholesalers, retailers, or distributors
need-satisfaction presentation
emphasizes probing and listening by the salesperson to identify needs and interests of prospective buyers
adaptive selling
involves adusting the presentation to fit the selling situation
consultative selling
focuses on problem identification where the salesperson serves as an expert on problem recognition and resolution
sales plan
a statement describing what is to be achived and where and how the selling effort of salespeople is to be deployed
major account management
the practice of using team selling to focus on important customers so as to build mutually beneficial, long-term, cooperative relationships
workload method
formula based method that integrates the number of customers served, call frequency, call length, and available selling time to arrive at a figure for the salesforce size
account management policies
specify who salespeople should contact, what kinds of selling and customer service activities should be engaged in, and how these activities should be carried out
emotional intelligence
the ability to understand one's own emotions and the emotions of people with whom one interacts on a daily basis
sales quota
contains specific goals assigned to a salesperson, sales team, branch sales office, or sales district for a stated period of time
salesforce automation
the use of technology to make the sales function more effective and efficient
the moral principles and values that govern the actions and decisions of an individual or group
society's values and standards that are enforceable in the courts
caveat emptor
let the buyers beware
consumer bill of rights
codified the ethics of exhange between buyers and sellers
economic espionage
the clandestine collection of trade secrets or propriety information about a company's competitors
code of ethics
a formal statement of ethical principles and rules of conduct
employeese who report unethical or illegal actions of their employers
moral idealism
a personal moral philosophy that considers individual rights or duties as universal, regardless of the outcome
a personal moral philosophy that focuses on "the greatest good for that greatest number" by assessing the costs and benefits of the consequences of ethical behavior
social responsibility
means that organizations are part of a larger society and are accountable to that society for their actions
green marketing
marketing efforts to produce, promote, and reclaim environmentally sensitive products
ISO 14000
consists of worldwide standards for enviromenatal quality and green marketing practices
cause marketing
occurs when the charitable contributions of a firm are tied directly to the customer revenues produced through the promotion of one of its products
social audit
a systematic assessment of a firm's objectives, strategies, and performance in terms of social responsibility
sustainable development
involves conducting business in a way that protects the natural environment while making economic progress