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94 Cards in this Set

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first evidence of mktg research
1824; local newspaper with survey on who will win local elections in penn.
also mail surveys
AC Neilson
(1922)
early growth of MR
1911- first research dept (Curtis Publishing)
recall measures and scaling
adolescent years of MR
1922-AC Nielson begins research ( 1st TV ratings comapny)
1940's- focus groups
WWII- social scientists
mature years of MR
-sellers mkt to buyers mkt
-market segmentation techniques developed
-OTC software
the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribtion of ideas goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individuals and organizational objectives
marketing
the planning collecting and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making and the communication of the results of this analysis to mgmt
marketing research
marketing research functions (3)
descriptive
diagnostic
predictave
the function that serves as
- the gathering and presenting of statements of facts
-describes what is going on
-ex (what is the price)
Descriptive Function
Function
-The explanation of data or actions (variations)
- ex. (why sales changed)
Diagnostic Function
Function
- the specification of how to use desciriptive and diagnostic research to predict the results of a planned marketing decision
-helps predict future results
-ex. (what demand will be)
Predictive Function
Research aimed at solving a specific pragmatic problem-
-better understanding of themarketplace
-determination of why a strategy or tactic failed
-reduction of uncertainty in management decision making
ex. a consulting company
SPECIFIC
Applied Research
3 types of Applied Research
programmatic
selective
evaluative
research aimed at expanding the frontiers of knowledge rather than solving a specific pragmatic problem
ex. uniersity or professors
Basic or pure research
research conducted to develop marketing options through market, market opportunity analysis or consumer attitude and product usage studies
progammatic research
research used to test decision alternatives
-help managers choose what to do with new products
selective research
(applied)
Research done to assess program performance
Evaluative research
(applied)
cost benefit analysis
(2x2)
-small profit & small market: cost will be greater than benefit (dont do research)
-small profit & large mkt: benefit likely greater than cost & market size affects potential
-large profit & small market:
cost lower than benefit but mkt size is limiting
- large profit& and large market: benefits outweigh costs ( most profitable)
mktg research today
Marketing research is beginning to provide some of the key metrics to senior management—brand health measures, changes in brand equity, advertising and promotional effectiveness measures, for example.
value of mktg research
how much you loose v. how much you gain. (weighted avg)
profit of new (% of failure) x profit of new (%of sucess)

the gain or loss is comparing decisions or remaining or changing

expected value is:
% of sucess x gain
(what you are willing to pay consultant)
management objective based on the principles that (1) the quality being delivered is at a level desired by the traget market and (2) that level of quality must have a positive impact on profitability
return on quality
moral principles or values generally governing the conduct of an individual or group
-not a one way relationship as all parties are responsible (suppliers and clients)
ethics
quoting an unrealistic low price to secue a firm's business and then using some means to substantiate the raised price
low ball pricing
respondents rights
-choose whether to participate in the research
-be in a safe env.
- be informed as to what research is about
-be granted privacy of the research results if promised.
a style of research gathering in which zealous political supporters decide one canidate to lead voters to support the other canidate.
push polling
process by which research can attain professional standing among research authorites as being qualified
research certification
internet research cons
-results may not be representative of population
-ease of use might promote over surveying
-not everyone has internet access
marketing research questions (5)
WHY should we do it?
WHAT should be done?
is it WORTH it?
HOW should it be designed?
WHAT will we do with it?
companies that carry out customized marketing research to address specific projects for corporate clients
custom research firms
companies that collect, package, and sell the same general marketing research data to many firms
syndicated research firms
a group of individuals who agree to participate in a series of research studies over time
research panel
companies that only collect survey data for corporate clients or research firms
field service firms
a pricing strategy in which a marketer sets a relatively high price for a product or service at first, then lowers the price over time
price skimming
usually the dominant competitor among several, leads the way in determining prices, the others soon following.
price leadership
setting a low price and remaining low to get market share
price penetration
managerial problem
specific type of action required by mgmt to solve the problem
-general and vague
-ex should we increase price of product
research problem
what info is needed, from whom, and who can it be obtained
very specific
-what is price elasticity of demand and the impact
a conjectural statment abt a relationship b/n two or more variables that can be tested with emperical data.
hypothesis
a remark about what the researcher wants to learn_without making a claim about what might be causing the issue at hand
research statement
problem formulation
the first and most important step
-links research output to managerial decisions
-defines problem, info needs, and hypothesis
-establishes value of info obtained
-stage for rest of mktg research problem
surveys using a limited number of respondents often employing less rogorious sampling techniques
pilot studies
reviewing info from situations that are similar to the current one
case analysis
research design (step 2)
framework for conducting the mktg research project
-info needed
-data collection methods
-measurementand scaling methods
-designing sampling plan

qualitative or quantitative
(exploratory, descriptive, causual)
Exploratory Research
(not conclusive)
used to seek insights into the general nature of the problem (preliminary)
-qualitative methods(focus groups, indepth, observation)
-secondary data analysis(transactions)
Descriptive Research
prove and accurate snaphot of some aspect of the mktg env
-tentative hypothesis
-not causual
-surveys, panels, observational data, transactions
ex: mkt segmentation studies, geographic studies, elascticity
(cross-sectional & longitudal)
cross sectional designs
consists of obtaining info form a sample of respondents belonging to the population on interest only once

benefits: representative sampling and response bias
longitudal designs
consists of obtaining info from a fixed sample at periodic intervals

benefits: detecting change, richness of data, and accuracy
causual research
used to show that one variable causes or determines the values of other variables, cause-effect relationships
(determing which is cause and which is effect)
-methods are structured
-hypothesis is well defined
-uses experiements

-it is least used
examples of causual research
-conjoint analysis
-traditional test markets
-split cable test markets
-simualted test markets
-temporal, concomitant, spurious
qualitative research
used for exploratory studies
-depth interviews, focus groups, projectiv techniques, observation
indepth interviews
adv:
-no influence from others
-can track theme
-can probe specific issues
-respondent is focused
dis adv.
-cost and time
-loose benefit of discussions
-no group dynamics
focus groups
discussion with informal structure that provokes spontaneity with group interaction
-used in exploratory to generate ideas, understand consumer vocab and reveal needs, motives
key factors:
moderation, planning agenda, recruitment, and interpretation of data
procedure of focus group
-decide on objectives
-used secondary research or hone questions
-select focus group
-select moderator
-develop questionaire
-conduct group
-review on tape
-prepare report
pros of focus groups
looks consumer in the eye
generates fresh ideas
allows client to observe and comment
can be executed quickly
cons of focus groups
expense and time
expertise is needed
participation issues
interpretation is sujective
not representatin of population
projective tests
tapping respondents deepest feelings by having them project those feelings into an unstructured situation
used when a respondent cannot respond meaningfully

-word association, sentencce completion, cartoon tests, customer drawings, storytelling, third person technique
pros of qualitative
cheaper
better understanding of consumer motives and feelings
first hand observations
improves efficency of quantitative research
-includes open ended questions and probing
-data is rich, human, subtle and revealing
cons of qualitative research
does not distinguish small differences in attitudes and opinions in a marketing mix
not representative of the population
online focus groups
pros:
lacking of geographic barriers, can access hard to reach population
easier for shyer participants
lower costs
fast turnaround time
increased openness


cons:
no group dynamics
no nonverbal inputs
no client invovlement
no exposure to external stimuli
Less role and skill of moderator
Survey Research
(quantitive b/c measuring in a scale)
RATIONAL is to enable qualtification of facts, opinions and attitudes

FLEXIBILITY includes openended and scaled questions, product experience, ongoing vs. one shot

3 decisions
-mode of contact (how)
-what is being measured
-who are subjects and how to select them

survey error: sampling v. nonsampling
Random/Sampling error
error resulting from chance variation (difference between a measure obtained from a sample of population and true population)
-results in error from sample design or proceedures

-can be prevented by increasing sample size
(population specification, sampling frame, selection error
population specification error
incorrectly designing population
ex. adults v. teens
sampling frame error
incomplete or inaccurate sampling frame
ex. some people are not listed in tele directory, those people are different
selection error
not following appropriate sampling proceedures
measurement errors
nonsampling/systematic

results from variation b/n info being sought and what is actually being obtained by process

types:
surrogate
interview error
measurement intrument error
processing error
surrogate error
correct info not sought
interview error
inconsistent questioning by giving cues
measurement instrument error
flaws in questionaire design
processing error
incorrect recording of information
response error
when respondent provides inaccurate answers
non response error
some sample members not contacted
some members provide incomplete responses
door to door
face to face in customer home
pros:direct contact,demonstrate products, good response rate
cons: expensive,bad image,liability, safety issues
executive interview
industrial door to door
pros: talking with decision maker,complicated questioning
cons:hard to get manager, not reflective of pop.
mall intercept interview
face to face , in traffic locations
pros: direct contact, test products, human interaction
cons: expensive, not representative of pop.,bad image
central location telephone
calling respondents from central location
pros:good segmentation,verify correct respondent
cons:cost, response rates slipping, need to be shorter
computer assisted telephone interviews
central location, info is entered into comp.
pros:complicated skip patterns, already on comp.,data entry errors rate
cons:comp glitches,need training,expensive equip.
cell phone surveys
pros:cheap,high rate of reaching people
cons:dropped calls, should be breif,low response rate
self administered questionaires
filled out without interviewer
pros:take time, good response rate
cons:take long time,overcomplicate survey
mail surveys
ad hoc/cross sectional and mail panels/ longitudal
pros:low costs, can get targeted mailing list,longer questionaires
cons:low response,list out of date,not sure of participant,manual data needed
email-internet
pros:cheap,direct access,get hard to reach, good response rates
cons:response rates are low,cant verify responder,security issues, not population
observatinal research
process of recording patterns of occurances or behaviors without normally communicating with people invovled

-info needed must be observable
-behavior should be repetitive
-behavior must be short
situations for observational research
natural v. contrived (setting)
open v. disugised (subjects knowledge
structured v. unstructured (detail or general)
garbologist
going through ones garbage or stuff to analyse consumption patters
mechanical observation
eye movement recorders
voice pitch analysis
people montiors in tv
traffic counters
people reader
physiological measurement (lie detector)
galvanic skin responses
electroenecyphalograph
Rams
scanners
ethnographic reasearch
study of human behavior in its ntural context, observation of behavior in physical setting
pros of observational research
see actual behavior
less prone to biases
executed quickly and accurately
more effiecent elecctronic measurements
clients can observe as well
cons of ob. research
only physical or behavior is measured, not attitudes belifs, values
not good representation of pop
interpretation is subjective
more qualitative
expensive and time consuming
mystery shopper
level 1-calls business with a script and notes experience
level 2- visits business and makes purchase with no employee interaction
level 3-visits store with scripted scenario, no purchase
level 4-visits business to test employees with knowledge
secondary data
historical, multi purpose,

helps clarify issues or problem
may provide solution, alternatives, other problems,background enhancing credibility
cons:outdated, hard to analyse, missapplied,biased, not available
internal sources
acct data, salesperson reports, inventory management,customer database
external sources
could be free, gov, or commercial, syndicated

pulished, trade directories or computer databases online
public domain data
bureau of consensus-largest publisher
population census-eveyr 10 years, demographics
economic census- 5 years,industries
standard industrial classification SIC
uniform numbering system for classfying firms
syndicated sources of data
store scanner
retail store audits
comsumer panels
single source systems