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17 Cards in this Set

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James Cook
1768 Scientific Observer, First to see antartic fields & use chronometer (acurate timepiece) 2 plot reliable charts
Charles darwin
1831 Naturalist & Englishman who sailed around the world on the HMS Beagle
Charles Darwins proposals and explorations
proposed explanation 4 formation of atolls (coral reefs) & explored plankton & barnacles
Charles Wyville Thompso
led 3.5 year British Navy warship (The Challenger) 1872 for biggest and longest oceanic exploration (19years,50volumes took 2 publish)
Stazione Zoologica
The 1st permanent lab in Naples Italy by German biologists in 1872
Marine Biological Lab at woodshole Massachussets
Laboratory Initiated by US Fish commission and first in US American Labs
Sound Navigation ranging developed in response to submarine warfare in WWII
Sonar which utilizes echolocation was invented
Scuba
Seld Contained underwater Breathing Apparatus by Emile gagnan (cars)and improved by Jaques Cousteau (underwater)
Technological crafts that expand our underwater range
-high tech subs that descend to deep ends
-Alvin (mechanical arm and basket), computers and satellites
Induction
One uses separate observations to arrive at general principles
Deduction
One uses reasoning from general principles to arrive at specific conclusions
Scientific Method
(1) Observation
that allows us to describe the natural world & leads to an induction to arrive at general principles (hypothesis)
Scientific Method
(2) General hypothesis
Must be able to be proven at least false and lead to deduction and specific hypothesis
Scientific Method
(3) Specific hypothesis
are just like a hypothesis but are more specific as to what is being tested
Scientific Method
(4) Testing
in experiments scientists create artificial situations to test hypothesis because they cannot make the necessary observations under natural conditions
·Variables
·Controlled Experiment
factors that might affect observations
An experiment where variables are prevented from affecting the experiment
Limitations of the Scientific method
Science cannot make judgments about values, ethics or morality, Science cannot tell humanity how to use knowledge or technology it produces