Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/14

Click to flip

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Holo-epipelagic

Mero-epipelagic
live in epipelagic throughout life
Tuna,

many spawn in epipelagic but juveniles develop elsewhere (e.g. esturaries)
How do nekton swim so fast?
) Nekton use propulsive force to move through the water, and reduce resistance by streamlining
– aspect ratio
fin height2/fin area
Rounded with aspect ratio =
Truncate with aspect ratio =
forked with aspect ratio
Lunate with aspect ratio =

In sharks:
• Heterocercal with aspect ratio
1
3
5
7-10
2
Why are tuna so fast?
• Optimal streamlining
• Efficient caudal fin to generate thrust
• Reduced drag due to
– small scales, non-bulging eyes, and small medial finlets

Muscle composition
Whales
seals/walruses
(Cetaceans)
(Pinnipeds)
Lateral line system
•Rows of small tubes that are open to seawater
–Sensitive to pressure changes
•Found in schooling fish
• SR (sinking rate) =
(w1 - w2) / R * Vw) where w1 is the density of an organism, w2 is the density of seawater, R is the surface resistance and Vw is the viscosity of water (related to temperature and salinity)
• Density reduced by
–manipulating ionic composition
–using lipid storage reserves
–maintaining gas-filled inclusions
siphuncle

•Depth limit for Nautilus
tube like tissue that connects inner tissues in nautilus

500m
Two types of swim bladders:
•Physostomous
Physoclist
• type has a duct to connect to the esophagus (salmon)
•lacks a duct (more common type)
Counter-current exchange system (rete mirabile system)
– Incoming vessels low in oxygen and outgoing vessels rich in oxygen run side-by-side
–Diffusion concentrates oxygen in the incoming vessel
spermaceti organ
•Fat-filled melon in sperm whales generates and focuses (as an acoustic lens) sounds
Great white shark
carcharodon carcharias
• Stealthy approach along the bottom (strong countershading helps), swim up from below and bite prey
•Prey is pulled underwater and held until it dies