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154 Cards in this Set

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The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to each other?
Anatomy
The study of the function of organism and how its works?
Physiology
Study of visible structures which can be seen by the naked eye?
Gross Anatomy (macro)
Study of structures not visible to the human eye, only visible by microscope?
Microscopic anatomy
Study of structures in a particular region of the body, EX: Head, cranium, skull?
Regional anatomy
Study of a specific system and its travel path?
Systemic anatomy
Relationship of body structures to overlying skin structures?
Surface anatomy
The level of structural organization that contains atoms, molecules, and organelles?
Chemical level
The level of structural organization that contains cells (made up from molecules)?
Cellular Level
The level of structural organization that is the smallest unit of life?
Cellular Level
The level of structural organization that is a group of similar cells that have a common function?
Tissue Level
Types of tissue found in the tissue level? CMEN
epithelium, muscle, connective, nervous
Type of tissue that covers the surface and line cavities?
Epithelium
Type of tissue that provides movement?
Muscle
Type of tissue that supports and protects body organs?
Connective
Type of tissue that provides the means for transmitting electrical impulses?
Nervous
The level of structural organization with at least 2 types of tissue that perform a specfic function?
Organ
The level of structural organization that have organs working closely together to accomplish a common purpose?
Organ System
The level of structural organization, highest level of organization, all systems working together?
Organism
A necessary life function that keeps inside seperate from outside?
maintaining boundaries
Maintaining bounderies at a micro level, example?
Plasma membrane around the cell.
Maintaining bounderies at a macro level, example?
Skin covering the skeletalon and muscles.
A necessary life function that promotes movement (muscular system) and provides the framework (skeletal)?
Movement
Movement on a cellular level is called?
Contractility
A necessary life function has the ability to sense changes and respond, EX: nervous sys?
Responsiveness
Responsiveness is also known as?
Irratibility
What is the term when the organsism is over stimulated?
Highly irritable
A necessary life function that is the process of breaking down food into molecules?
Digestion
A necessary life function that is largely regulated by hormones, EX: Endocrine Sys?
Metabolism
Two types of metabolism?
Catabolism and Anabolism
The building up part of metabolism?
Anabolism
The breaking down part of metabolism?
Catabolism
A necessary life function that helps the body via the digestive system to rid the body of indigestible food and urea?
Excretion
A necessary life function that has both cellular and organismal levels?
Reproduction
Type of reproduction that allow (mother)original cells to divide into two identical daughter cells?
Cellular reproduction
Type of reproduction that is formed by the combination of egg and sperm?
Organismal reproduction
A necessary life function that increase in the size of a part of the body or entire body?
Growth
Type of survival need that has carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and minerals for energy and cell building?
Nutrients
Type of survival need that helps to release energy from nutrients?
Oxygen
Type of survival need that provides necessary environment for chemical reactions?
Water
Type of survival need normally 98F/37C, random movements by the muscular system to maintain and produce this?
Normal body temperature
Type of survival need that is described as the force of the air exerted on the surface of the body?
Atmospheric pressure
Termed the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions?
Homeostasis
What are the 3 INDEPENDANT components of homeostasis?
Receptor, Control center, Effector
Type of component that senses stimuli?
Receptor
Type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes?
Receptor
Determines the range of a variable, analyzes and responds?
Control Center
The factor or event being regulated?
Variable
Part that provides the means for control center response to stimuli?
Effector
Type of feedback that shutts off stimulus variable so to revert back to normal?
Negative Feedback
Type of feedback which enhances stimulus so change occurs in same direction?
Positive Feedback
If blood glucose level is too high, what type of feedback is used to return it to normal?
Negative
If insulin is too high, what type of feedback will return levels to normal?
negative
What acts as the receptor for glucose during negative feedback of Excessive glucose?
Cells of the pancreas
What acts as the effector for excessive glucose?
Liver
What is an example of Positive feedback?
Think blood clotting, or labor
What is the appeal of anatomy and why?
Anatomy is concrete, body structures can be seen, felt, and examined.
Physiology is explainable only in terms of?
The underlying anatomy
You use this type of anatomy to feel for pulses and draw blood?
Surface anatomy
Type of anatomy that traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout life?
Developmental anatomy
Type of developmental anatomy that concerns developmental changes that occur before birth?
Embryology
Type of anatomy that studies structural changes caused by disease?
Pathological anatomy
Type of anatomy that studies internal structuress as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures?
Radiographic anatomy
Type of anatomy that studies subcellular level?
molecular biology
Type of physiology that concerns kidney function and urine production?
Renal Physiology
Type of physiology that explains the workings of the nervous system?
neurophysiology
Type of physiology that examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels?
cardiovascular physiology
Anatomy provides a ______ image, and physiology reveals the body's ________ nature?
static, dynamic
In the principle of complementary of structure and function, ________ always reflects _______?
Function always reflects structure.
The simplest level of the structural heiarchy?
chemical level
Tiny building block of matter?
Atom
Atoms combine to form?
molecules
Molecules associate in specific ways to form?
organelles
Basic components of the microscopic cell?
Organells
Smallest units of all living things?
Cells
Each organ is a specialized function center because?
Responsible for a necessary activity that no other organ can perform.
Represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to promote life?
Organismal level
The muscles systems cells ability to move by shortening is called?
contractility
All chemical reactions that occur within the body cells is termed?
Metabolism
Using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP?
Cellular respiration
The energy rich molecules that power cellular activity?
ATP
Metabolism depends on which systems to make and distribute nutrients and oxygen?
Digestive and Respiratory (for nutrients and oxygen), and cardiovascular to deliver.
The process of removing excreta or waste from the body?
Excretion
What body systems participate in excretion?
Digestive, urinary, respiratory
Rids the body of indigestible food residues in feces?
Digestive system
Disposes of nitrogen-containing metabolic wastes such as urea in urine?
Urinary System
Rids the body of carbon dioxide, which is carried to the lungs, where it leaves the body through exhalation?
Respiratory system
For true growth to occur _________ activities must occur at a faster rate than __________ activities?
Constructive, destructive
Is accomplished by increasing the number of cells?
Growth
The ultimate goal of all body systems is to?
maintain life
What are the survival needs to maintain life? WONNA
nutrients, oxygen, water, normal temperature, and atmospheric pressure
Type of nutrient that acts as the main energy fuel for body cells?
Carbohydrates
Type of nutrient that is essential for building cell structures?
Proteins and fats
Type of nutrient that cushion body organs, form insulating layers, and provide a reserve of energy-rich fuel?
Fats
Which mineral helps to make bones hard and is required for blood clotting?
Calcium
The chemical reactions that release energy from food are what type of reactions?
Oxidative reaction
Oxidative reaction require what element to perform?
Oxygen (O)
Oygen is made available to the blood and body cells by cooperative efforts by which systems?
Respiratory and cardiovascular
Accounts for 60 to 80% of body weight?
Water
Is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body?
Water (H2O)
What happens to chemical reaction if the body temperature drops below 37C/98F?
Metabolic reactions become slower and slower, and finally stop
Water is obtained for use in the body from?
ingested food or liquids
What happens if the body temperature gets to high?
Chemical reactions occur at a frantic pace and body proteins lose their characteristic shape and stop functioning.
Breathing and gas exchange in the lungs depend on?
appropriate atmospheric pressure
At high altitudes what happens to atmospheric pressure?
It is lower and the air is thin, gas exchange may be inadequte to support cellular metabolism.
Function always reflects?
Structure
The simplest level of the structural hierarchy?
Chemical level
Give example of chemical level?
2 Hydrogen + Oxygen=
H2O
Finish the line:
atoms-molecule-__________-__________?
Organelles, Cells
Basic components of the microscopic cell?
Organelle (mitochondria, lysosome, peroxisome)
Smallest units of all living things?
Cells
Necessary life functions?
(MR MD GERM)think
Maintaining bounderies, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth.
The integumentary system helps to maintain?
bounderies
Includes the activites promoted by the muscular system?
Movement
Internal and external movement examples?
propelling ourselves forward like in running, and the movement of foodstuffs through the digestive system
The breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood?
Digestion
Forms the external body covering?
Integumentary system
Protects deeper tissue from injury?
Integumentary system
Synthesizes Vitamin D?
Integumentary system
Site of cutaneous pain, pressure, etc, receptors?
Integumentary system
Contains sweat and oil glands?
Integumentary system
Protects and supports body organs?
Skeletal system
Provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement?
Skeletal system
Formes blood cells and stores mineral (red bone marrow and calcium)?
Skeletal system
Allows manipulation of environment, locomotion?
Muscular System
Allow facial expressions?
Muscular System
Maintains posture?
Muscular System
Produces heat?
Muscular System
Fast-acting control system of the body?
Nervous system
Responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands?
Nervous system
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth?
Endocrine System
Regulate reproduction and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells?
Endocrine System
Blood vessels transport blood?
Cardiovascular System
Carries oxygen to body organs and carbon dioxide away from body organs?
Cardiovascular System
Carries nutrients, waste from the body through veins and arteries?
Cardiovascular System
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood?
Lymphatic/Immunity System
Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream?
Lymphatic/Immunity System
Houses white blood cells involved in immunity?
Lymphatic/Immunity System
Attacks foreign substances within the body?
Lymphatic/Immunity System
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide? (gas exchange)
Respiratory System
Gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs?
Respiratory System
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells?
Digestive System
Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces?
Digestive System
Eliminatee nitrogenous waste from the body?
Urinary System
Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-based balance of the blood?
Urinary System
Type of metabolism that breaks down substances into their simpler building blocks?
Ex: polysaccharide to monosaccharide
Catabolism (Cata=down)
Synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances? Ex:
Anabolism (ana=up)
Use of nutrients and oxygen produce ATP via?
Cellular respiration
The survival needs? (WONNA)
Water, oxygen, nutrients, normal body temperature, atmospheric pressure
Accounts for 60-80% of body weight?
Water
The chemical reactions that release energy from food is?
Oxidative
Head, neck and trunk make up this division of the body?
Axial
Limbs, appendages make up this division of the body?
Appendicular
Two fundemental divisions of the body?
Axial, Appendicular