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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the lowest acceptable outcome in negotiation?
Resistance points
What are the advantages and disadvantages to written communication?
Adv. - Revision possible, permanent record, receiver cand read and reread whenever they want
Disadv. - sender does not control the delivery, feedback is not immediate, sender has to anticipate the receiver's questions
What is negotiation?
A process by which parties with different interests make a joint decision and/or come to an agreement
What are the adv. and disadv. to electronic media?
Adv. - similar to written, but add speed and efficiency, esp. over large distances
Disadv. - similar to written, but add confidentiality problems, "flaming" occurs
What is integrative bargining?
win-win possible (optimal)
What is closure?
The tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing. We assume that what we don't know si consistent with what we do know
What are the keys to effective negotiation?
research (opponent and situation), start positive, address problems (not personalities), pay little attention to opening offers, emphasize win-win, seek third-party involvement if necessary
What are the two types of oral communication?
What is distributive bargaining?
zero-sum or competitive
What is coaching and mentoring?
Communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's work performance
How do you become an empathetic listener?
Show your desire to understand
Listen first
Talk about what's important to the other
Reflecting feelings
Focus on the emotional part of the message
More than just restating words
What is perception?
The process by which individuals make sense of their world
What are the 4 Cross-Cultural Temporal Concepts?

Describe each.
Appointment time: how punctual you must be
Schedule time: time when projects should be completed
Discussion time: how much time should be spent in discussions
Acquaintance time: how much small-talk is required
What are 4 ways to improve formal communication?
Decrease reliance on downward communication
Increase chances for upward communication
Encourage much greater use of horizontal communication
Be aware of communication problems
How to improve reception
Company hotlines:call and leave annonymous comments
Survey feedback: info gathered from questionnaires
Informal meetings with top exec.: directly "hear" employees
What is oral communication?
From face-to-face to video conferencing
A rich, popular medium
How to get effective feedback?
Set an agenda
Focus on specific behaviors
Keep feedback impersonal and goal-oriented
Make feedback well-timed
Ensure understanding
Negative feedback for improvement
"Sandwich" approach but get to the point
What is written communication?
From letters to e-mail
Good for conveying info
What is the traditional, human relations, and interactionist view of conflict?
Traditional:it should be eliminated
Human relations: is natural and inevitable
Interactionist: some conflict is necessary for effective funcitoning of the organization, most common view today
What is the goal of communication?
Common understanding
What are languages?
words have different meanings to different people, especially different technical "languages"
What is communication?
Exchanging information and conveying meaning to others
What are the two perceptual problems?
Selective perception

How do you manage the grapevine? 4 things
Don't withhold info from it
Don't punish those who use it
Feed info to it
Use if as a source of info
What are the 2 communication medium?
Oral communication

Written communication
What are informal communication channels?
Transmitting messages outside the formal communication channels
The grapevine
What is selective perception?
Notice and accept stimuli which are consistent with our values and beliefs. It ignores inconsistent stimul.
What are the adv. and disadv. to oral communication?
Adv. - two-way, immediate feedback, more cues, usually most persuasive of all channels
Disadv. - poorly thought out times, no permanent record
What are the 5 barriers to effective communication?
Selective Perception
Nonverbal cues
GE's e-business Mentoring program
Introduced in 1999 by Jack Welch
All were mentored
1000 young GE professionals are the "e-business experts" as mentors
Goal - management 100% proficient in the internet, e-mail, ...
What are some perceptual filters?
How people experience stimuli
Personality, psychology, experience-based differences
How to make effective presentations?
Have effective intro
Be organized
Design content to fit audience
Use supporting visuals effectively
Reiterate the conclusion
Project confidence
What are the 3 formal communication channels?

Describe each.
Downward comm. - top down

Upward comm. - bottom up

Horizontal - within a level
How can organizational members improve communication?
Increasing their use of feedback
Simplify the language used
Listen actively
Constrain our emotions
Be aware and careful with your nonverbal communication
Be empathetic to your reciever
What are nonverbal cues?
words and nonverbals may be inconsistent
What is counseling?
Communicating with someone about non-job related issues

Issues may be affecting a person's performance
How to develop active listening skills
Make eye contact
Exhibit affirmative nods
Avoid distracting actions or gestures
Ask questions
Avoid inturrupting
Don't overtalk, encourage others to speak
Smooth transitions between speaker and listener
What are the five levels of listening from the lowest to the highest?
Selective Listening
Attentive Listening
Empethetic Listening
What are emotions?
messages are interpreted differently on the emotions of the receiver at the time the message is sent/received
What is selective perception?
receiving only selected parts of a message (hearing or seeing only what you want to)
What are the verbal/nonverbal communication amount percentages?
Body Language(kinesics):60%
What is filtering?
deliberate manipulation of information to make it more favorable to the reciever
What are the two types of nonverbal communication?
Body language(kinesics):facial expressions, gestures, movements or postures of the body
Verbal intonation(paralanguage):emphasis given to words or phrases, by pitch, tone, rate, volume, pattern, ...
How to write effective reports?
Organize ideas-outlines, headings
State objectives in intro and conclusion for green and blue personalities
Use tables and charts
Write clearly and concisely
Why are informal communication channels highly accurate?
Information is timely
Senders seek feedback
Accuracy can be verified