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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Satisficing
○ Choosing a solution that meets a minimum standard of acceptance
○ Resolves problems by producing solutions that are satisfactory, as opposed to optimal
Decision-Making Styles
directive
analytical
conceptual
behavior
○ Five issues to consider when using groups to make decisions:
§ Groups were less efficient than individuals; consider time constraints
§ Groups were more confident about their judgments and choices than individuals; can fuel groupthink
§ Group size affected decision outcomes; decision quality was negatively related to group size
§ Decision-making accuracy was higher when groups knew a great deal about the issues at hand and group leaders possessed the ability to effectively evaluate the group members' opinions and judgments
§ The composition of a group affects its decision-making processes and ultimately performance
• Group Problem-Solving Techniques
brainstorming
the nominal group technique
the delphi technique
§ Seven rules for brainstorming used by IDEO, a product design company:
□ Defer judgment
□ Build on the ideas of others
□ Encourage wild ideas
□ Go for quantity over quality
□ Be visual
□ Stay focused on the topic
□ One conversation at a time
five stages of creativity
preparation
concentration
incubation
illumination
verification
• Decision-Making Biases
availability heuristic
representativeness heuristic
confirmation bias
anchoring bias
overconfidence bias
hindsight bias
framing bias
escalation of commitment bias
• Practical Recommendations for Increasing Creativity
○ Effectively managing the stages of creativity and fostering a positive and supportive work environment
○ Establish corporate values that emphasize innovation goals and to allocate rewards and resources to innovative activities
○ Management should create a "safe" work environment that encourages risk taking, autonomy, collaboration, and trusting relationships among employees
○ Develop "peer environment" where people are more concerned about working for the greater good then their own personal success
○ Providing effective feedback
○ Stay connected with innovations taking place in the academic community
• Practical Lessons from Feedback Research
○ The acceptance of feedback should not be treated as a given; it is often misperceived or rejected
○ Managers can enhance their credibility as sources of feedback by developing their expertise and creating a climate of trust
○ Negative feedback is typically misperceived or rejected
○ Although very frequent feedback may erode one's sense of personal control and initiative, feedback is too infrequent in most work organizations
○ Feedback needs to be tailored to the recipient
○ While average and below-average performers need extrinsic rewards for performance, high performers respond to feedback that enhances their feelings of competence and personal control
○ Computer-based performance feedback leads to greater improvements in performance when it is received directly from the computer system rather than via an immediate supervisor
○ Recipients of feedback perceive it to be more accurate when they actively participate in the feedback session versus passively receiving feedback
○ Destructive criticism tends to cause conflict and reduce motivation
○ "the higher one rises in an organization the less likely one is to receive quality feedback about job performance?
• Trouble Signs for Organizational Feedback
○ Feedback is used to punish, embarrass, or put down employees
○ Those receiving the feedback see it as irrelevant to their work
○ Feedback information is provided too late to do any good
○ People receiving feedback believe it relates to matters beyond their control
○ Employees complain about wasting too much time collecting and recording feedback data
○ Feedback recipients complain about feedback being too complex or difficult to understand
360 degree feedback
letting individuals compare their own perceived performance with behaviorally specific and usually anonymous performance information from their manager, subordinates, and peers
• Tips for Giving Good Feedback
○ Focus on performance, not personalities
○ Give specific feedback linked to learning goals and performance outcome goals
○ Channel feedback toward key result areas for the organization
○ Give feedback as soon as possible
○ Give feedback to coach improvement, not just for final results
○ Base feedback on accurate and credible information
○ Pair feedback with clear expectations for improvement
Assertive
Pushing hard without attacking; permits others to influence outcome; expressive and self-enhancing without intruding on others
Aggressive
Taking advantage of others; expressive and self-enhancing at other's expense
Nonassertive
Encouraging others to take advantage of us; inhibited; self-denying
• Nonverbal Communication
body movements and gestures
touch
facial expressions
eye contact
• Keys to Effective Listening
○ Capitalize on though speed
○ Listen for ideas
○ Find an area of interest
○ Judge content, not delivery
○ Hold your fire
○ Work at listening
○ Resist distractions
○ Hear what is said
○ Challenge yourself
○ Use handouts, overheads, or other visual aids
• Gender Differences in Communication
○ Men are less likely to ask for information or directions in a public situation that would reveal their lack of knowledge
○ In decision making, women are more likely to downplay their certainty; men are more likely to downplay their doubts
○ Women tend to apologize even when they have done nothing wrong. Men tend to avoid apologies as signs of weakness or concession
○ Women tend to accept blame as a way of smoothing awkward situations. Men tend to ignore blame and place it elsewhere
○ Women tend to temper criticism with positive buffers. Men tend to give criticism directly
○ Women tend to insert unnecessary and unwarranted thank-you's in conversations. Men may avoid thanks altogether as a sign of weakness
○ Women tend to ask "what do you think?" to build consensus. Men often perceive that question to be a sign of incompetence and lack of confidence
○ Women tend to give directions in indirect ways, a technique that may be perceived as confusing, less confident, or manipulative by men
○ Men tend to usurp ideas stated by women and claim them as their own. Women tend to allow this process to take place without protest
○ Women use softer voice volume to encourage persuasion and approval. Men use louder voice volume to attract attention and maintain control
○ Differences are not stereotypes for all women and men; there are always exceptions to the rule
○ Your linguistic style influences perceptions about your confidence, competence and authority which may affect your future job assignments and subsequent promotability
• Genderflex
○ Temporarily using communication behaviors typical of the other gender
Grapevine
unofficial communication system of the informal organization
§ Can function positively as early warning signal for organizational changes, a medium for facilitating organizational changes, a medium for embedding organizational culture, a mechanism for fostering group cohesiveness, and way of getting employee and customer feedback
Management by Walking Around (MBWA)
managers walk around and informally talk to people from all areas and levels
Liaison individuals
those who consistently pass along grapevine information to others
Organizational moles
those who use the grapevine to enhance their power and status