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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Flehmen Response
Farm Animals receive input by visual or olfactory input. For Erection
The region of the brain that controls Sexual behavior.
Efferent Neurons
Neuron that passes down the spinal cord though out the pelvic plexus and activates the parasympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic System Causes...
A. Dilation of arteries of the penis.
B. Contraction of the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles which forces blood into the cavernous areas of the penis and cause erection.
C. Relaxation of the retractor penis muscles.
How much does blood pressure increase in response to muscle contractions in Bulls and Stallions?
A. Peripheral Circulation: 200mmHG
B. During Erection: 15,000mmHG
A. During Erection: 6,500mmHG
What are the two phases of Ejaculation?
1. Emission
2. Ejaculatory
A. Contraction of the smooth muscles around the accessory glands and vas deferens causes fluids and sperm to mix in the anterior urethra (Colliculus Seminalis)

B. Sphincter of the bladder closes.
Violent and Rhythmic contractions of the muscles surrounding the urethra causes the semen to be expelled from the penis.
Sexual Stimulation
Presentation of a stimulus that will elicit mounting in the possible shortest time.
A. Introduce a new animal
B. Change collection area
C. Change individual collecting semen
D. ALL the Above
Sexual Preparation
A. Manipulate situation so they can collect the greatest possible number of high quality sperm in ejaculation.
B. Normally extend period Sexual Stimulation beyond that needed for mounting and ejaculation
C. Methods
1. False Mounts
2. Restraint of male close to stimulus
- not helpful in stallions
Daily Sperm Output
# of spermatozoa that a male is capable of ejaculating the day after sperm reserves have been depleted.
Daily output is 25% of the # of spermatazoa collected from a sexually rested male.
Breeding Soundness Evaluation
Consists of...
1. Physical Examination
Masculine traits
overall health/vigor
reproductive organs
a. Prepuce
b. Penis
c. Internal Organs
Breeding Soundness Evaluation of Masculine Traits
A. Present in response to testosterone. EX- Indicative of a functional hypotalamic-adenohypophyseal-testicular axis.
B. Crest, muscling, behavior, coarseness of hair, color of horns, development reproductive organs.
Breeding Soundness Evaluation of Locomotion
A. Feet and Legs- Range animals usually travel great distances for food and H20
B. Conformation
Breeding Soundness Evaluation of Reproductive Organs. Prepuce
A. Examine for freedom of defects
B. When penis is not fully exposed, most expose prepuce by grasping penis with gauze pad and pulling sheath posteriorly to visualize.
Breeding Soundness Evaluation of the Penis
A. Best to examine during electro ejaculation.
B. Glans
C. Palpation of posterior to scrotum may allow detection of injury
Breeding Soundness Evaluation of Internal Organs
A. Must palpate per rectum
1. Ampula
2. Urethral Area
3. Vesicular glands-cause
most problems in pelvic
4. Prostate glands
Scrotal Examination
1. Should be pendulous, yet firmly suspended
2. Size of testes is highly correlated to sperm production
3. Scrotal Circumference measurements
a. influenced by condition of the animal. Fat animals can have 4-5 cm Greater
>41cm=90% satisfactory
4. Epididymis should be palpated. Fullness indicates abundant amount of sperm.
Semen Quality
Scrotal Circumference,% motility, and abnormalities are all correlated to % conception.
Libido Examination
A. Can only be measured by observing the act of mating
B. May utilize a heifer or cow in heat
C. Serving capacity test is used to determine bulls probable sex performance in herd environment
Libido Examination of Serving Capacity Test
1. Conducted for ~20 min
2. Use 4 females restrained in breeding chutes 25ft apart. Heifers should weigh at least 75% of bulls being used.
3. Pre-stimulate bulls ten minutes prior to test
4. Allow 5 bulls into pen with 4 restrained femails
5. Rotate heifers after two tests.
6. Cull bulls that do not attempt to breed. When using virgins, give at least 2 tests.
7. Brahman bulls are timid breeders
When do you evaluate a bull?
1. Before purchasing sire
2. Prior to breeding season: ADV-Know status immediately before use.
DIS- Procurement of replacements is difficult
3. When bulls are plentiful
Good price in late summer, fall.
4. During breeding season: Have semen from each bull evaluated 3-4wks after the start of breeding season. If cows continue to cycle, have bull re-evaluated.
Characteristics of Normal Ejaculation of a Bull
1. Single Fraction
2. Single Thrust and Ejaculation
3. Creamy white color
4. Volume: 5-15 ml
5. Concentration: 800-1200x109/ml
6. Motility: 75%
7. Morphology (normality)-95%