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43 Cards in this Set

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Define Classical Conditioning
Process by which a stimulus that previously did not elicit a response comes to elicit a response IN A REFLEX-LIKE FASHION, after it is paired for one or more trials with a stimulus that already elicits that response.
What are the components needed for classical conditioning?
1. Unconditioned stimuli
(natural reinforcer)

2. Unconditioned response

3. Conditioned stimulus
(neutral)

4. Conditioned response
In classical conditioning, what can you say about unconditioned response and the conditioned response?
Behaviorally the same
Define habituation.
Decline in magnitude of a reflexive response (UR or CR)

when a stimulus is repeated several times in succession.
Define extinction.
Tendency for a conditioned stimulus to lose its power

to elicit a conditioned response over time

when no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Define generalization.
After conditioning

a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus

will elicit the conditioned response

even though they were never paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Define discrimination.
A process by which the

response to one stimulus

is reinforced

while it is NOT reinforced in the presence

of a similar, but different stimulus
In classical conditioning, the organism is (passive or active)?
Passive
Classical conditioning is also known as what? x2
Respondant conditioning

Pavlovian conditioning
Define operant conditioning.
Consequences of response either

INCREASES or DECREASES the likelihood that the response will occur again
In operant conditioning, the organism is (active or passive)? and why?
Active

b/c it behaves in a way that leads to a reward
Operant conditioning is also called what? x2
Instrumental learning

Thorndike learning
In operant conditioning, REINFORCEMENT does what?
Increases the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
In operant conditioning, PUNISHMENT does what?
Decreases the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
In operant conditioning, POSITIVE implies what?
Characterized by the addition of something to the environment.
In operant conditioning, NEGATIVE implies what?
Characterized by the removal of something from the environment.
Define standardization.
Representative, NORMAL diagnostic population for comparison
Reliability

- Assesses what?
- Test is reliable if?
Whether test results are reproducible.

If it gives similar results each time.
Validity

- Assesses what?
- Test is valid it?
Whether test truly measures what it purports to measure

if it measures what it is suppose to measure
What factors can be affected by mood states, as well as motivation, effort, cooperation, and changes in clinical status.
Reliability

and

Validity
Sensitivity

- definition
Probability of a positive test among patients with the disease
Most sensitive tests finds what?
All true cases

as well as lots of

false positives
Specificity

- definition
Probability of a negative test among patients without the disease
Most specific tests finds what?
All true cases

as well as lots of

false negatives
Psychological diagnosis is based on what?
Current categorization and nomenclature found in

DSM-IV-TR 2000
A complete psychological assessment requires what components? x4
1. Clinical Interview
2. Observation
3. Self-report
4. Standardized testing
What are the components of a complete STRUCTURED clinical interview? x4
1. SCID
2. MINI
3. SIRS
4. Rorschach Ink Blot tests
SCID

- what does it stand for?
- what is it?
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR

Semi-structured diagnostic interview designed to make reliable DSM-IV diagnoses
Axis I

- Component of what?
- Duration of test?
- Diagnoses what?
SCID

1 to 2 hours

Major Psychiatric Diagnoses
Axis II

- Component of what?
- Duration of test?
- Diagnoses what?
SCID

0.5 to 1 hour

Personality disorders
MINI

- what does it stand for?
- what is it?
Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory

Brief structured interview for DSM-IV
SIRS

- what does it stand for?
- what is it?
Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms

Longer, GOLD STANDARD interview for malingered psychiatric symptoms.
What is the name of the standardized scoring system for the Rorschach ink blots?
Exner scoring
The validity of the Rorschach ink blot test is comparable to what?
MMPI
What does the Rorschach ink blot test measure? x3
Personality structure

Psychiatric diagnoses

Probability of psychotherapy success
What are the components measured in Observation portion of the structured psychological assessment?
Mental Status

Hamilton Depression Rating scale
What are the components of the Self Report portion of the structured psychological assessment?
MMPI-2
PAI
MCMI
Beck Depression Inventory
MMPI-2

- What does it stand for?
- Measures what? via what?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

Current emotional state
Enduring personality character
via 567 "true/false" questions
PAI

- What does it stand for?
- Measures what? via what?
Personality Assessment Inventory

DSM diagnoses/criteria
via multiple choice questions
MCMI-III

- What does it stand for?
- Measures what? via what?
Milon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III

Separation of Axis I and II
True/False
Beck Depression Inventory

- measures depression how?
21 item assessment

measuring severity of depression
What is IQ?
Ratio of

Mental age / chronological age

times 100
IQ

- Mean
- SD
100

15