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57 Cards in this Set

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Where would you find pleasure centers?
Septum Pellucidum

Septal nucleus (very stimulated in substance abuse)

Nucleus Accumbens Septi
Where is pleasure experienced?
Cortical and subcortical limbic areas

including

prefrontal
and
anterior temporal areas.
What is the chemical basis of pleasure?
Monoamines
and
Opoid Peptides

produce feelings of well being and inhibit slow pain.
Lesions manifesting behavioral changes in experiencing pleasure can be usually seen in where?
Frontal

and/or

Temporal Lobes
Give three examples of Opioid Peptides:
- Where are they?
Beta Endorphins

(hypothalamus and pituitary)

Enkephalins and Dynorphins

(Slow-pain pleasure axis)
Serotonin
- Made where?
- Pathway?
- Ascends to do what?
- Descends to do what?
Raphe Nucleus

Medial Forebrain Bundle
pathway for ascending

Mood elevation
Sleep-Wake cycle
Behavior

Inhibit slow pain transmission
Norepinephrine
- Made where?
- Pathway?
- Ascends to do what?
- Descends to do what?
Locus Ceruleus

Medial Forebrain Bundle
pathway for ascending

Mood elevation
Sleep wake cycle
Arousal
Memory Enhancement
Elevation of attension

Inhibits slow pain transmission
Dopamine
- Made where?
- Pathway?
- Ascends to do what?
- Descends to do what?
Ventral Tegmental Area

Medial Forebrain Bundle

Motivation
Reward
Enhanced cognition

No descending pathways
Acetylcholine made in the Basal nucleus does what?
Ascending pathway for:

Memory processing
Retention
Acetylcholine made in the ARAS does what?
Ascending pathway for:

Unconsciousness
Histamine also plays a role in what?
Sleep-wake cycle
All drugs of abuse stimulate what pathway?
Dopaminergic Mesolimbic Pathway
Give examples of monoamines of the limbic system.
Serotonin

Norepinephrine

Dopamine

Acetylcholine

Histamine
Describe the Medial Forebrain bundle pathway
Starts from

ARAS brainstem.

Spreads diffusely to:

Hypothalamus
Anterior nu. of Thalamus
Neocortex
Dorsomedial Thalamus
Septal nucleus
What chemicals are spread in the Medial Forebrain bundle?
Acetylcholine

Monoamines
List the disorder/diseases caused by decreased serotonin.
Aggression
Compulsive disorder
Tourette's
Eating disorder
Depression
List the disorder/diseases caused by decrease in norepinephrine.
Depression
List the disorder/diseases caused by increase in norepinephrine.
Anxiety Disorder
List the disorder/diseases caused by decrease in dopamine.
Depression
List the disorder/diseases caused by increased Dopamine.
Schizophrenia
List the disorder/diseases caused by decreased Acetylcholine.
Alzheimers
Etiology of Depression.
Unknown, but chronic stress plays major role.
Pathology of Depression.
Diminished hippocampus
Describe the chemical imbalance in major depression.
Decrease in:

- Dopamine
- Norepinephrine
- Serotonin
Treatment for Depression and how it works.
Antidepressant drugs:

- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- Electric shock tx
- Lithium
- Tricyclics
- Serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Drugs will indirectly stimulate neurons in dentate gyrus to proliferate.
The amygdala and hippocampus have a direct connection with what?
Hypothalamus
Describe the limbic response to acute "nervous" stress.
Locus Ceruleus releases NE

This causes enhanced activity of both amygdala and hippocampus

This will activate to hypothalamus to stimulate our sympathetics

Sympathetics (with NE axon terminals) will cause EPI and NE to be released in blood via adrenal medulla.
Describe the limbic response to chronic stress.
Limbic system releases CRF (Corticotrophin Releasing Factor).

Only enhances the amygdala (and not hippocampus)

This causes the hypothalamus to produce CRF to the pituitary.

Pituitary gland now activated to release ACTH to Adrenal cortex.

Adrenal cortex releases cortisol.

Cortisol destroys the hippocampus
Blocking serotonin uptake does what?
More serotonin would mean

more BDNF
(Brain Derived Neurotropic Factors)

via 2nd messengers
What does BDNF do?
Stimulates growth of dentate gyrus in the hippocampus

Inhibits CRF and cortisol projections
Besides serotonin uptake blockers, what other ways can you increase BDNF?
Exercise
Electroshock tx
Estrogen (via BCL-2)
Lithium (via BCL-2)
How is the immune system associated with hippocampal growth?
Immune system stimulates microglia proliferation, thus will promote hippocampal growth.
What does Sonic Hedgehog protein do with the hippocampus?
Stimulates stem cell proliferation in hippocampus and olfactory bulb.
Name some signaling peptides associated with influencing brain circuits related to reward, motivation, and well being, and memory.
Leptin
Orexin
Gherlin
What is the etiology for Schizophrenia?
Unknown

Might be due to excess pairing of prefrontal and anterior temporal lobes.
Signs/symptoms of schizophrenia.
POSITIVE:
Hallucinations
Delusions

NEGATIVE:
Impaired judgement
Impaired thought processing
Flat affect (dull personality)
Pathology of Schizophrenia
Shallow LEFT superior temporal gyrus

Enlarged ventricles

Widened sulci in prefrontal area
Side effect of anti-psychotic drugs.
Tardive Dyskinesia
What is the chemical imbalance in Schizophrenia?
Increased dopamine in limbic areas
Describe the physiological process in Positive symptoms for schizophrenias.
Ventral Tegmental Area will increase dopaminergic activity (via MESOLIMBIC pathway) to the subcortical areas
Describe the physiological process in Negative symptoms for schizophrenias.
Ventral Tegmental Area will also project to the frontal cortex and cingulate cortex,

(via mesocortical tract)


causing diminished dopaminergic activity.
Dopamine mediates movement via what tract?
Nigrastriatal tract
Dopamine mediates mood via what tract?
Mesolimbic tract
Dopamine mediates motivation via what tract?
Mesolimbic
Dopamine mediates mentation via what tract?
Mesocortical
Lesions of the insula might lead to what beneficial effects.
Disappearance of craving and compulsion associated with drug addiction
Which part of the brain is associated with decision making?
Prefrontal (tertiary zone) cortex
A right frontal lobe lesion would induce what symptom?
Euphoria
A left frontal lobe lesion would induce what symptom?
Fearful, withdrawn, depressed
Diseases/disorders of the bilateral frontal lobe
+
temporal lobe deficits
are?
Schizophrenia

ADHD

Pick's Disease
Describe the anatomical interface of the Prefrontal cortex to other parts of brain.
To: Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

Superior longitudinal, Arcuate fasciculus

To Orbital Frontal Cortex (Limbic system)
Uncinate Fasciculus
Primitive reflexes would be due to what lesion?
Bilateral lesion to

Lateral prefrontal lobe
Disinhibition of Primitive drives ("Emotional Incontinence") would be due to what?
Bilateral lesion of the orbital prefrontal cortex
Diseases/disorders of the bilateral frontal lobe
+
temporal lobe deficits
are?
Schizophrenia

ADHD

Pick's Disease
Describe the anatomical interface of the Prefrontal cortex to other parts of brain.
To: Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

Superior longitudinal, Arcuate fasciculus

To Orbital Frontal Cortex (Limbic system)
Uncinate Fasciculus
Primitive reflexes would be due to what lesion?
Bilateral lesion to

Lateral prefrontal lobe
Disinhibition of Primitive drives ("Emotional Incontinence") would be due to what?
Bilateral lesion of the orbital prefrontal cortex