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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What composes the Ventral Striatum?
Nucleus Accumbens
What composes the striatum?
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
What composes the Lentiform Nucleus?
Putamen
Globus Pallidus
What composes the Corpus striatum?
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus Pallidus
What arteries supply the corpus striatum?
Medial and Lateral Striate Arteries
What arteries supply the subthalamus?
Posteromedial arteries
What arteries supply the substantia nigra?
Posteromedial arteries
Posterolateral arteries
Anterior Choroidal arteries
In the motor system, basal ganglia, what is the dopaminergic center?
Substantia Nigra
In the limbic system, basal ganglia, what is the dopaminergic center?
Ventral Tegmental center
Describe the projections of the motor system pathway.
Substantia Nigra
to
Striatum
to
Globus Pallidus
to
Dorsal Thalamus
to
Motor/Premotor Cortex
Describe the projections of the limbic system pathway.
Ventral Tegmental Area
to
Ventral Striatum
to
Dorsal Thalamus
to
Frontal, Limbic Cortex
What causes Parkinsonism?
Depletion of dopamine

from
Substantia Nigra
to
Striatum
What causes Schizophrenia?
Increase in dopamine

from
Ventral Tegmental Nucleus
to
Ventral Striatum

OR

Decrease in Dopamine

from
Ventral Tegmental Nucleus
to
Frontal, Limbic Cortex
What are the basal ganglia components of the motor system?
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus Pallidus
What are the basal ganglia components of the limbic system?
Nucleus Accumbens
Amygdala
What are the functions of the motor system?
Planning, Facilitation, Initiation, and Suppresion of Movement
What are the functions of the limbic system?
Mood, motivation, and behavior
All areas of the cerebral cortex project to where?
Striatum
In subcortical areas of the motor pathway what are the components of the two feedback circuits?
1. Striatum and Substantia Nigra

2. Subthalamus and Globus Pallidus
What is the connection between the substantia nigra and the striatum called?
Nigrostriatal
What is the connection between the Raphe nucleus and the striatum called?
Raphestriatal
The lateral globus pallidus projects where?
To subthalamus
The medial globus pallidus projects where?
To Dorsal Thalamus
The subthalamus will project to where?
Medial globus pallidus
Corticostriatal neurons:
- NT
- excitatory or inhibitory?
Glutamate

Always excitatory
Describe the neuron connection of the DIRECT pathway from the striatum to the dorsal thalamus.
- NT
- excitatory or inhibitory.
1. Striatum to Medial Globus Pallidus via GABA (inhibitory) neurons.

2. Medial Globus Pallidus to Dorsal Thalamus via GABA (inhibitory) neurons
Describe the neuron connection of the INDIRECT pathway from the striatum to the dorsal thalamus.
- NT
- excitatory or inhibitory.
1. Striatum to Lateral Globus Pallidus via GABA (inhibitory) neurons.

2. Lateral Globus Pallidus to Subthalamus via GABA (inhibitory) neurons

3. Subthalamus to Medial Globus Pallidus via Glutaminergic (excitatory) neurons.

4. Medial Globus Pallidus to Dorsal Thalamus (VA/VL) via GABA (inhibitory) neurons.
Dopaminergic neurons come from where and project into where?
From Substantia Nigra

to Striatum's

direct and indirect pathway
Are dopaminergic neurons excitatory or inhibitory?
Excitatory to the direct pathway

Inhibitory to the indirect pathway
What type of NT does interneurons in the basal ganglia use?
Acetylcholine, thus cholinergic receptors
Neurons from the Raphe nucleus to the striatum use what NT?
Serotonin
Describe the basal ganglia pathway to LMN.
There is none
Basal ganglia connect to the cerebral cortex on which side?
ipsilaterally
During movement, describe the feedback circuits of basal ganglia neurons.
Fire continually
Describe the basal ganglia neuron activity in feedforward circuits.
Fire prior to UMN
Suppression of movement is mediated by what components of the basal ganglia?
Striatum

Subthalamus
Facilitation of movement is mediated by what components of the basal ganglia?
Striatum

Substantia Nigra (dopamine)
Describe the input from the areas of the cerebral cortex to the striatum.
- NT
- involves what?
Glutaminergic (excitatory)

Planning and initiation of movement
Describe the output from the dorsal thalamus to the motor cortex.
- NT
- involves what?
Glutaminergic (excitatory)

Movement (changes threshold of UMN)
Describe the output from the medial globus pallidus to the dorsal thalamus.
- NT
- involves what?
GABA (inhibitory)

Inhibits movement,
but tonically active

20% of neurons decrease activity to allow movement

80% of neurons increase activity to inhibit competing movements
Describe the interneurons of the striatum.
- NT
- involves what
Acetylcholine

Modulate and suppress dopamine activity
Describe the Striatal output pathway.
- NTs
- Involves what?
Direct Pathway
- GABA and Substance P
- Facilitates movement

Indirect Pathway
- GABA and Enkephalin
- Suppresses movement
Describe the activity of the Substantia Nigra
- NT
- Involves what?
Dopamine

Excites direct pathway of striatum

Inhibits indirect pathway of striatum
List the similarities between Basal Ganglia circuits and the Cerebellar circuits.
1. Both have NO direct connections with LMN

2. Both receive fibers from Widespread areas of Cortex

3. Both converge on Motor Cortex (frontal lobe) via Dorsal thalamus

4. Both function as Feedforward systems

5. Both function as Feeback systems

6. Both work in concert to control same UMN

7. GABA inhibition is prevalent in both.
Who is the most handsome man?
Young S. Noh
Hell yeah!!!!