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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List four types of chronic knee conditions
Tumor

Infection

Arthritis

Overuse syndrome
List three examples of overuse syndrome
Tendonitis

Anterior knee pain (chondromalacia)

Bursitis
List three types of bursitis
Prepatellar bursitis

Iliotibial bursitis

Pes anserine bursitis
Knee pain is mimed by what other pains? x5
Hip pain

Lumbar pain

Vascular pain

Radiculopathy pain

Sympathetically mediated pain
What are the components to a knee exam? x6
Ligament test

Inspection during stance/gait

Meniscus test

Patellar femoral test

ROM

Effusion
List the five types of ligament tests and include which ligament is being tested.
Lachman's (ACL)

Anterior Drawer test (ACL)

Posterior Drawer test (PCL)

Medial (Valgus)

Lateral (Varum)
Knee effusion

- normal amount
- increased by what?
- what causes hemarthrosis (blood in effusion)
2-5 cc's

OA and Infection

Trauma
What is the an IMPORTANT basic principle to apply during a knee exam?

Why apply this?
Always examine the OPPOSITE knee before the symptomatic one.

This will give a better idea of what you expect would be normal.
Anterior Cruciate injury

- how common
- population group most affected
- associated with what other injury?
Very common especially in sports

Female athletes

Meniscus and ligament damage
Posterior Cruciate injury

- how common
- most common mechanism
- associated with what
not as much as ACL injuries

direct blow to knee

injury to popliteal artery
ACL and PCL workup:

- for surgical planning
- if vascular injury
MRI

Doppler
Arteriogram
Vascular consult
Meniscus tests x2
McMurray's (standard)

Appley's Grinding test (uncommon)
Describe the Biophysical process associated with cartilage compromise.
Collagen network fracture

Unraveling of PG
Describe the Biochemical process associated with cartilage compromise.
Reduction of Inhibitors

Proteolytic Enzymes increase
An osteoarthritic joint would show an increase of what? x2
Collagen turnover

Water
An osteoarthritic joint would show a decrease in what?
PG

HA size

HA concentration

Aggrecan's lost
Hyaluronan's Role

- primary role
- Increases x2
- inhibits x3
- additional roles x2
Viscoelasticity in synovial fluid

Condroitin sulfate + ECM

PG loss
Invasion of inflammatory cells
Nociceptors

Antioxidant
Alters immune cells
(slows down lymphocytes)
How does the synovial fluid respond to a fast hard impact?
Slight unraveling makes it act as a shock absorber.
How does the synovial fluid respond to slow, constant impact?
Completely unravels becoming a lubricant
OA:

- Associated with what in knee
Genu Varum
Treatment for OA in order
Non-pharmacological
(excersize, stretch, diet)

Acetominophen

Viscosupplementation
COX-2 inhibitors
Steroid shots?
+
If GI risk, NSAIDs + GI agent
IF no risk, low dose NSAIDS

Surgery
What are the surgery options for OA in the knee?
Knee effusion

Unilateral Arthroplasty

TKR
Total knee replacement

- what is sacrificed
- what makes it a constrained type
ACL

If there is ligament damage