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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Denticulate ligament
2. Arachnoid
3. Dura Mater
4. Denticulate ligament
5. Anterior root of spinal nerve
6. Covers the surface of spinal cord.
Spinal Cord Meninges Anterior View
1. Conus Medullaris
2. Cauda Equina
3. Filum Terminale
4. L2 to S2
Identify and answer
How does the Filum Terminale attach to the coccyx?
Via Coccygeal ligament
In adult spinal cord, where does it end?
Between L1 and L2
In adult spinal cord, where is the conus medullaris located?
Between L1 and L2
In adults, a lumbar puncture would be ideal where?
Between L3 and L4
between L4 and L5
In newborns, the spinal cord ends where?
At L3 Vertebrae
In newborns, where would it be ideal to perform a lumbar puncture?
At a lower level than L3
Define Scoliosis.
Excessive lateral curvature
Define Kyphosis
Excessive thoracic curvature
Define Lordosis
Excessive lumbar curvature
How many cervical nerves?
8 nerves
How many thoracic nerves?
12 nerves
How many lumbar nerves?
5 nerves
How many sacral nerves?
5 nerves
How many coccygeal nerves?
1 nerve
What are the movements of the cervical vertebrae?
Lateral Flexion
What are the movements of the thoracic vertebrae?
Rotation only
What are the movements of the lumbar vertebrae?
Lateral flexion
What are the movements of sacral vertebrae?
What are the movements of the coccygeal vertebrae?
1. Bifid Spinous Process
2. Superior articular facet
3. Transverse process
4. Upper Cervical b/c of Bifid spinous process and transverse process
5. Lower Cervical b/c of no bifid spinous process, but existing transverse process.
ID and Answer
1. Inferior Articular Facet
2. Superior Articular Facet
3. Joint Capsule
4. Zygapophysial joint
ID and Answer
1. Annulus Fibrosis
2. Nucleus Fibrosis (soft)
What type of connective tissue surrounds the articular disc on both top and bottom?
Hyaline cartilage
What type of connective tissue is the articular disc made of?
Where is the nucleus pulposus derived from?
Embryological notochord
Herniated disc
Most herniated discs occur where?
Between L4 and L5
between L5 and S1
What do herniated discs do?
Impinge on the nerve roots, most likely the L5 and S1 nerve roots.
Where would you find uncovertebral joints?
Between C3 to C6, on the lateral edge of articular disc at the uncinate process.
At the uncovertebral joint, what is the orientation of the articular disc?
At the uncovertebral joint, the edge is lined by what?
Hyaline cartilage only.
What area is frequent site of bone spurs causing neck pain?
C3 to C6, at the uncovertebral joint.
What is the intervertebral disc between the C1 and C2 called?
There is no intervertebral disc there.
What is the joint responsible for the rocking motion assoicated with nodding "yes."
Atlanto-occipital joint
What is the joint responsible for the shaking motion associated with shaking "no."
Atlanto-axial joint
1. Anterior Longitudinal Ligaments
2. Posterior Longitudinal ligament
3. Ligamentum Flavum
4. Interspinous ligament
5. Supraspinous ligament
Ligamentum Nuchae
Extrinsic muscles of the upper extremity and the respiratory muscles are innervated by what?
Ventral rami.
What is the only upper extremity back muscle not innervated by the ventral rami?
Trapezius (CN XI spinal accessory nerve)
Intrinsic muscles moving the vertebral column is innervated by what?
Dorsal rami
Give the segmental arteries supplying the back. x3
1. Aorta
2. Vertebral artery
3. Internal iliac artery
What does the dorsal scapular nerve innervate in the upper extremity, extrinsic muscles? x2
Levator Scapulae
Rhomboids (major and minor)
The upper extremity, extrinsic muscle --> trapezius, is innervated by what nerve?
Spinal accessory nerve
The EXTRINSIC MUSCLES of the UPPER EXTREMITY is innervated by what?
Ventral Rami of the Brachial Plexus
The EXTRINSIC MUSCLES responsible for RESPIRATORY is innervated by what?
Ventral Rami of the Thoracic Cord
Intrinsic muscles move what?
It moves the vertebral column
What is the origin of the Splenius?
Spinous process

Capitis (ligamentum nuchae)
Cervicus (T1-T6)
What is the insertion of the splenius?
Skull (capitus)
Transverse process (cervicis)
What is the actions of the splenius? x2
Extend & Rotate head
What innervates the splenius?
Dorsal Rami
What is the common origin of the Erector Spinae muscles? x3


Spinous Process
(of lumbar and sacral vertebrae)
What is the insertions of the erector spinae? x4
Spinous process
Transverse process
What is the innervation of the erector spinae?
Dorsal Rami
What are the general muscles of the erector spinae?
What erector spinae muscle inserts into the mastoid process?
Longissimus capitus
What are the actions of the erector spinae muscles? x3
Extend Head

Extend & Laterally Flex Spine
What are the general Transversospinal muscles?
1. Splenius Capitis
2. Splenius Cervicis
3. Spinous Processes
4. Transverse Process & skull
5. Extend and Rotate head
6. Dorsal Rami
ID and answer
1. Spinalis Thoracis
2. Longissimus Thoracis
3. Intercostalis Lumborum
4. Longissimus Capitis
5. Longissimus Cervicis
6. Intercostalis Cervicis
7. Intercostalis Thorcis
1. Semispinalis Capitis
2. Semispinalis Cervicis
3. Semispinalis Thoracis
4. Multifidi
5. Dorsal Rami
6. Extend head and spine
Rotate (twist) spine
1. Long Rotatores
2. Short Rotatores
3. Semispinalis
4. Multifidus
1. Interspinous
2. Levatores Costarum
3. Intertransverse
1. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
2. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
3. Obliquus Capitis Superior
4. Obliquus Capitis Interior
5. Posterior Altanto-occipital membrane