Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 5 vertebral areas of the back?
cervical, lumbar, thoracic, sacral, coccygeal
in which vertebral area are ribs connected to the vertebrae?
through which hole in the skull does the brain stem exit to become the spinal cord?
foramen magnum
to which joints does the vertebral column transfer body weight?
sacroiliac joints
what are the two elements of the pectoral girdle?
scapulae and clavicles
what are the 2 elements of the axial skeleton?
skull, vertebrae
what are the elements of the appendicular skeleton?
upper and lower extremities, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle.
what percentage of the length of vertebral column is composed of intervertebral discs?
how many vertebrae are present in the cervical region?
how many vertebrae are present in the thoracic region?
how many vertebrae are present in the lumbar region?
how many vertebrae are present in the sacral region?
how many vertebrae are present in the coccygeal region?
which two regions of the veretbral column are fused?
sacral and coccygeal
in which 3 regions of the vertebral column does most of the motion occur?
cervical, thoracic, lumbar
at which two joints does movement between adjacent vertebrae take place?
nuclei pulposus of intervertebral joints and zygapohyseal joints
in which 2 vertebral regions are movements the freest?
cervical and lumbar
in which vertebral region is flexion the greatest? extension? lateral flexion?
cervical; lumbar; lumbar
which type of movement is most marked in the thoracic region?
which part of the vertebra provides strength in order to support weight of body?
vertebral body
which part of the vertebra is composed of the R and L pedicles as well as the laminae?
vertebral arch
which processes project superiorly and inferiorly to articulate with the same processes in vertabrae located superiorly and anteriorly? what is the name of the articulations formed?
superior and inferior articulate processes; zygapophyseal joints
which processes are locataed at the intersection of laminae and pendicles and are responsible for attachment of ribs in thoracic vertebral region?
tranverse processes
which processes project posteriorly from the vertebral arch?
spinous processes
which processes serve as levers to which muscles attach and move the vertebrae?
transverse processes and spinous process
what is the name for the large hole in the center of the vertebra?
vertebral foramen
the superior and inferior vertebral notches are found at the level of which vertebral structure? adjacent inferior and superior notches form what in the vertebral column?
pendicles; intervertebral foramina
which joint prevents the vertebrae from slipping anteriorly?
zygapophyseal joints
which vertebral area has a particularly large vertebral foramen to accomodate for innervation of upper extremities?
which vertebral area is characterized by transverse foramina? which vessels flow through these foramina?
cervical; vertebral arteries
what is another name for the large anterior tubercles of C6? for the spinous process of C7?
carotid tubercles; vertebra prominens
the lateral ends of which process in the cervical vertebral region terminate in inferior and superior tubercles?
transverse process
what is unique about the spinous processes on vertebrae C3-C5?
they are bifid (split)
what is the name for the processes on the vertebral bodies of C3-6 which can form bony spurs?
uncinate processes
the superior articular surfaces of which vertebra articulate with the occipital condyles to support the head?
atlas (C1)
which vertebra allows for nodding and has no body or spinous process?
atlas (C1)
which vertebra is designed to allow the head to shake from side to side?
axis (C2)
in which vertebra can one find the dens?
axis (C2)
which vertebral region is characterized by long sloping spinous processes?
what is the reason the lumbar region has large vertebral bodies?
to support the weight of the body.
what is the purpose of the mamillary process on the posterior surface of the superior articular process in the lumbar vertebrae?
to attach to muscles
why is lumbar puncture easier in the lumbar vertebral region?
because the spinous processes are shorter and stubbier, allowing for easier access.
what is the name for the structure formed by the anterior edge of S1? for what purpose is this useful?
sacral promontory; important obstetrical landmark
which structure of the sacral vertebral region leads into the sacral canal and provides access to the epidural space?
sacral haitus
which structure represents the inferior articular process of S5 and acts as a palpable clinical guide to the sacral haitus?
sacral cornua
what are the two regions of the intervertebral discs?
annulus fibrosis and nucleus pulposus
what is the name for the ligament which attaches the lamina of two vertebrae? do they limit or encourage flexion?
ligamenta flava; limit
which ligaments attach two adjacent spinous processes?
interspinous ligaments
which ligament extends from the sacrum to C7 and runs along the spine posterior aspect of the spinous process?
supraspinous process
which ligament is responsible for connecting external occipital protuberance to the spinous processes of cervical vertebrae?
ligamentum nuchae
which ligament is responsible for attaching the pia mater to the dura mater (it passes through the arachnoid mater) in the spinal column?
denticulate ligament
to what are the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments anterior and posterior?
vertebral body
where does the anterior longitudinal ligament begin? where does it end?
occipital bone; anterior surface of sacrum
which is stronger, the anterior or posterior longitudinal ligament?
of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, which prevents hyperflexion? which prevents hyperextension?
posterior; anterior
which layer of intervertebral discs is characterized by lamellae of fibrocartilage?
annulus fibrosis;
which layer of intervertebral discs acts as a shock absorber? where are these discs the thickest?
nucleus pulposus; in the lumbar region
which type of cartilage can be found between the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc?
in a herniated disc, which part of the intervertebral disc slips out? what is the most common location for this?
nucleus pulposus; L4-5
with which muscle does a synergist muscle work?
what is the role of fixating (stabilizing) synergists?
to prevent or control movement at joints proximal to the moving joint thereby providing a fixed or stable base for movement.
what is the role of neutralizing (counteracting) synergists?
to prevent unwanted movements of the prime mover
what are the two categories of extrinsic muscles? by what are extrinsic muscles innervated?
superficial and intermediate; anterior rami of spinal nerve.
what are the 5 superficial muscles of the back?
latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, levator sacpulae, trapezius
what are the two intermediate muscles of the back?
serratus posterior superior, serratus posterios inferior
by which nerves are the intrinsic muscles of the back innervated?
posterior rami of the spinal nerves
what are the two classifications of intrinsic back muscles?
superficial and deep
into what two layers is the superficial intrinsic group of back muscles divided? which muscle composes each?
superficial and intermediate; superficial is splenius muscles in neck and upper thoras; intermediate is erector spinae in the trunk (3 layers)
which 3 muscle groups compose the deep intrinsic back muscle group?
transversospinalis, segmental, suboccipital groups
the suboccipital triangle connects which 3 bones?
occipital bone, axis, atlas.
what is another name for superficial fascia?
subcutaneous tissue
1) interior angle
2) medial border
3) superior angle
4) superior border
5) spine
6) acromion process
7) lateral border
what is the identity of each number (1-7) in this diagram?
what it the name of the meninge directly bordering the spinal cord?
pia mater
what is the name of the space between the pia mater and arachnoid mater? what characterizes this space?
subarachnoid space; it is filled with CSF
what is the name of outermost meninge? what is located directly outside this later? directly inside?
dura mater; epidural space; subdural space
what is the name for the extension of pia mater that extends beyond the spinal cord?
internal filum terminale
1) transverse process
2) vertebral body
3) articulate process
4) spinous process
5) vertebral foramen
6) laminae
7) pendicles
label each part (1-7) of this vertebra.
A) inferior vertebral notch
B) superior vertebral notch
C) inferior articular process
D) superior articular process
E) spinous process
F) vertebral body
label each part of this vertebra (A-F)
the denticulate ligament separates which two structures?
dorsal root and ventral root
what is the name for the inferior end of the spinal cord? at which vertebral level does this normally occur?
conus medullaris; L2
at which vertebral level is the inferior limit of the dural sac?
1) erector spinae
2) levator scapulae
3) latissimus dorsi
4) splenius capitis
5) minor rhomboid
6) major rhomboid
label each of the muscles in the image
which nerve innervates the trapezius?
accessory nerve
where are the 3 facets for rib attachment on thoracic vertebrae?
transverse facet on transverse process, superior and posterior demi-facets on vertebral body.
which arteries supply the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal regions with blood?
vertebral arteries, intercostal arteries, lumbar arteries, lateral sacral arteries
what is unique about the veins which drain the vertebrae?
they do not have valves and thus allow metastasis of cancer cells via retrograde flow to veins.
in which vertebral regions are the primary curvatures? are these curvatures concave posteriorly or anteriorly? what is the cause of these curvatures?
thoracic and sacral; anteriorly; differences in height between the anterior and posterior parts of vertebrae.
in whcih vertebral regions are the secondary curvatures? are these curvatures concave posteriorly or anteriorly? what is the cause of these curvatures?
cervical and lumbas; posteriorly; difference in thickness between the anterior and posterior parts of intervertabral discs.
at which vertebral position is the center of gravity?
just anterior to S2
what is the name for an abnormal increase in thoracic curvature?
what spinal vertebral region is affected by lordosis?