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32 Cards in this Set

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Bone can be classified by shape into what categories?
Flat or Long
Bone can be classified by mechanism of formation into what categories?
Intramembranous - cartilage is NOT used as a template. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into bone cells and immediately start laying down bone.
Endochondral - bone formation with cartilage model
Which of the following are categories of microscopic structure that bone can be classified into?

A. Cancellous
B. Compact
C. Lamellar
D. Spongy
E. Trabecular
F. Woven
Microscopic structure is by age:
C. Lamellar (aka mature) and F. Woven (aka immature)

All the rest are examples of macroscopic structure (type) classification. Spongy = cancellous = trabecular. Compact is the other type.
Which of the following are categories of macroscopic structure that bone can be classified into?

A. Cancellous
B. Compact
C. Lamellar
D. Spongy
E. Trabecular
F. Woven
Spongy = cancellous = trabecular. Compact is the other type.

The others are examples of microscopic structure (by age).
Bone is vascular. How do nutrients get through it?
Neurovascular channels extend thru compact bone and between periosteum and inside the bone.
True or False:
Bone exhibits ONLY appositional growth.
TRUE!! Only layer over previous layer. No interstitial growth!
Regarding regional divisions in the architecture of a long bone, match each description with its term.

1. compact bone with red or yellow marrow
2. compact outside, spongy inside
3. demarcation of growth

Diaphysis, Epiphyseal plate or line, Epiphysis
1. Diaphysis
2. Epiphysis
3. Epiphyseal plate or line
The [ endosteum / periosteum ] is the outer layer of dense irregular CT whose inner layer is an osteogenic layer with osteoblasts.
Periosteum.
The [ endosteum / periosteum ] is the lining inside of bone (marrow cavity; all internal surfaces of bone that is only comprised of osteogenic layer with osteoblasts.
Endosteum.
Regarding architecture of a flat skull bones, the periosteum outersurface is called the ________ while the inner surfaces is continuous with the _______.
pericranium, dura mater
_______ secrete chondroitun sulfate and collagen type I fibers, which all together are called osteoid.

A. Osteoblasts
B. Osteocytes
C. Osteoclasts
A. Osteoblasts
What is osteoid?
It is chondroitin sulfate + collagen type I fibers. Secreted by osteoblasts.
What do osteoblasts secrete?
Chondroitin sulfate and Collagen Type I fibers
When does an obsteoblast become an osteocyte?
Osteoblast becomes an osteocyte when they are surrounded by their matrix.
What is the mechanism of bone deposition? (2 or 3 steps, depending on your perspective)
1. Osteoblast will synthesize osteoid (Type I collagen, chondroitin sulfate)
2. Ossification of osteoid.
Oteoblast has alkaline phosphatase secreted into osteoid. Calcium is deposited on the collagen fibers in form of hydoxyapatite crystals.
In mechanism of bone deposition, particularly the ossification of osteoid, __________ is secreted into osteoid and then ______ is deposited on the ________ to form _______ crystals.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE is secreted into osteoid, CALCIUM is depositied on the COLLAGEN FIBERS in the form of HYDOXYAPATITE crystals
[ Osteoblasts / Osteoclasts / Osteocytes ] are located within lacunae and have cell processes that extend thru canaliculli.
Osteocytes

These also have gap junctions that join cells (how they get nutrition)
[ Osteoblasts / Osteoclasts / Osteocytes ] gobble up bone constantly, are multinucleated, and commonly seen within Howship's lacunae or resorption canals.
Osteoclasts
[ Osteoblasts / Osteoclasts / Osteocytes ] are seen within Howship's lacunae or resorption canals.
Osteoclasts
Regarding the intercellular matrix of bones, the organic portion composed of ________ and ______ accounts for about ____% of bone weight whereas the inorganic portion, composed of crystal-resembling __________ makes up about ____% of bone weight.
Organic portion (35%) : Collagen Type I fibers and chondroitin sulfates. Note: of the organic components, 90% of it is collagen type I fibers.

Inorganic portion (65%) : crystal resembling hydroxyapatite
Regarding intercellular matrix of bone, the [ inorganic / organic ] portion provides bone with toughness and resiliency.
organic portion (makes up 35% of bone weight) relays toughness and resiliency
Regarding intercellular matrix of bone, the [ inorganic / organic ] portion provides bone with it's hardness.
inorganic portion = bone hardness and 65% of bone weight
Compact bone has three types of lamella: Haversian / Osteon system, Outer and Inner circumferential lamellae, and Interstitial lamellae. Describe em.
see side three or "H" for written
1. Haversian system (osteon): Haversian canal at center, concentric lamellae, canaliculi interconnect lacunae, cement line
2. Outer and Inner Circumferential lamellae : outer increases diameter of the bone, inner increases the diameter of the bone while decreasing the marrow cavity
3. Interstitial lamellae : remnants of Haversian systems after an osteoclast has laid new bone in the vicinity
What is Sharpey's fibers?

A. bundles of collagen where tendon inserts into bone
B. fibers lining Volkmann's canals
C. fibers lining cement lines
A. bundles of collagen where tendon inserts into bone
True or False:
Spongy / Cancellous bones do not contain haversian systems.
True. They are nourished by blood vessels in the bone marrow cavity.
This refers to macroscopic structure of bone.

A. Compact vs. Spongy
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
A. Compact vs. Spongy
This refers to microscopic structure of bone.

A. Compact vs. Spongy
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
This refers to the two mechanisms of bone formation.

A. Compact vs. Spongy
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
This refers to macroscopic structure of bone.

A. Compact vs. Spongy
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
A. Compact vs. Spongy
This refers to microscopic structure of bone.

A. Compact vs. Spongy
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
This refers to the two mechanisms of bone formation.

A. Compact vs. Spongy
B. Woven vs. Lamellar
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
C. Intramembranous vs. Endochondral
True or False:
Osteoclasts belong to the monocyte lineage and are not related to osteoblasts or osteocytes.
True.

Digital Histo: Tissues > Connective > Bone and Bone Marrow > As a Tissue 4 of 15