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92 Cards in this Set

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Define Neoplasia.
Process of new growth
Define Neoplasm.
New growth
Define Oncology
Study of tumor
Define Cancer
Common term for malignancy
T/F - All neoplasms are malignant.
FALSE: They can be either or.
What are the two components of neoplasms.
1. Parenchyma

2. Stroma
What does parenchyma (clonal neoplastic cells) do?
Neoplasmic cells that determine biologic behavior of a tumor
Reactive Stroma is what kind of tissue?

What does reactive stroma do?

Amount of Stroma determines what in tumors?
Connective Tissue

Non-neoplasmic support tissue for the Parenchyma (clonal neoplastic cells) assisting in angiogenesis and growth.

Determines consistency of tumors
Define Desmoplasia.
Abundant collagenous stroma due to stimulation by parenchymal cells
5 examples of benign epithelial neoplasms
1. Polyp
2. Adenoma
3. Papilloma
4. Papillary cystadenoma
5. Cystadenoma
Define adenoma and give some examples.
A benign epithelial neoplasm that arises from glands or forms glandular structures.

Thyroid, bronchial, renal tubular, and hepatic cell adenoma
Define papilloma and give some examples.
A benign epithelial neoplasm that forms finger-like projections or warty projections.

Choroid plexus papilloma, intraductal papilloma of the breast.
Define cystadenoma and give a common site.
A benign epithelial neoplasm that forms a cystic structure.

Ovaries
Define papillary cystadenoma and give a common site.
Cystadenoma with papillary projections on its internal surface.

Ovaries
Define polyps and give examples.
Benign and malignant epithelial neoplasm that produces a visible protrusion above the mucosal surface.

Colonic and uterine polyps
Malignant polyps are termed what?
Polypoid CA
What are benign mesenchymal tumors of the connective tissue? x 4
1. Fibroma
2. Lipoma
3. Osteoma
4. Chondroma
What are benign mesenchymal tumors of the endothelial and related tissues. x 3
1. Hemangioma
2. Lymphangioma
3. Meningioma
What are the benign mesenchymal tumors of the muscle? x 2
1. Leiomyoma
2. Rhabdomyoma
Define Lipoma
Benign mesenchymal tumor of the adipose tissue
Structural and color character of lipoma.
Well circumscribed mass.

Cut surface is yellow.
What is the most common benign tumor in males.
Lipoma
Define Fibroma
Benign mesenchymal tumor of fibrous tissue
Define Chondroma
Benign mesenchymal tumor of hyaline cartilage
Define Osteoma
Benign mesechymal tumor of bone.
Define Hemangioma.
Benign mesenchymal tumor of blood vessels
Define lymphangioma
Benign mesenchymal tumor of lymph vessels
Define Leiomyoma.
Benign tumors of the smooth muscle
What is the most common tumor in females?
Leiomyoma
Define Rhabdomyoma
Benign mesenchymal tumor of striated muscle
What is a commmon site for rhabdomyoma
Heart
What are the three types of benign neoplasms?
1. Tumors composed of one parenchymal cell type
2. Tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type but derived from one germ line.
3. Tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type derived from more than one germ layer.
Give an example of a tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type but derived from one germ layer.
Pleomorphic Adenoma (AKA Mixed tumor of salivary gland)
What is pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor)?
Benign neoplasm of the salivary gland (parotid).
Define Rhabdomyoma
Benign mesenchymal tumor of striated muscle
What is a commmon site for rhabdomyoma
Heart
What are the three types of benign neoplasms?
1. Tumors composed of one parenchymal cell type
2. Tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type but derived from one germ line.
3. Tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type derived from more than one germ layer.
Give an example of a tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type but derived from one germ layer.
Pleomorphic Adenoma (AKA Mixed tumor of salivary gland)
What is pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor)?
Benign neoplasm of the salivary gland (parotid).
Give an example of a tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type derived from more than one germ layer.
Teratoma
Where does teratoma arise from?
Totipotent cells
Teratoma are common where?
Gonads
A mature teratoma is _____?
Benign
An immature teratoma is _______ and also called what?
Malignant

Teratocarcinoma
What are the three types of malignant neoplasms
1. Carcinoma
2. Sarcoma
3. Lymphoma
Define carcinoma
Malignant neoplasm that is epithelial in origin
Define sarcoma
Malignant neoplasm that is mesenchymal in origin.
Define lymphoma
Malignant neoplasm associated with the immune system.
Define squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant epithelial neoplasm that arises from squamous epithelium.
Define adenocarcinoma.
Malignant epithelial neoplasm that forms glands or arises from glandular tissue
Define Choristoma.
Normal tissue misplaced within another organ.
Define Hamartoma.
Non-neoplastic growth of disorganized tissue indigenous to a particular site.
Define hypertrophy.
Increase in size of cell
Define Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells
Define metaplasia
Replacement of one adult cell type by another
Define dysplasia
Abnormal growth which is a precursor of malignancy
Define anaplasia
Loss of differentiation and feature of malignancy
Define differentiation.
Extent to which a parenchymal tumor cell resembles a comparable normal cell both functionally and morphologically.
Describe the differentiation of benign tumors.
Well differentiated
Describe the differentiation of malignant tumors.
Range from well to poorly differentiated
Describe the morphology of malignant cells. x 5
1. Chromatin clumping (large nucleoli, bizarre mitosis)
2. Hyperchromasia (increased DNA)
3. Anaplastic cells growing in disorganized fashion
4. Pleomorphism (variation in size and shape)
5. Increased Nucleus:Cytoplasmic ratio (to 1:1, when nl is 1:4 to 1:6)
Describe the growth rate of benign tumors.
Grow slowly
Describe the growth rate of malignant tumors
Grow rapidly
Rate of growth usually correlates with what?
Degree of differentiation.

Slow growth with well differentiated, and rapid growth rate with pooly differentiated.
Factors that determine rate of growth for tumors. x 2
1. Blood supply
2. Hormones
Describe the local invasion for benign tumors
Grow as expansile masses without the ability to infiltrate, invade, or metastasize.

Capsule is noted
Describe the local invasion for malignant tumors
Grow by progressive infiltration, invasion, and destruction of the surrounding tissue.
Define metastases.
Tumor implants discontinuous with the primary tumor.
Presence of metastates indicate a tumor is what?
Malignant, but rare exception have been reported.
What are pathways of tumors to spread? x 3
1. Seeding of body cavities and surfaces.
2. Lymphatic spread
3. Hematogenous spread
What is the most common pathway for the initial dissemination of carcinomas?
Lymphatic spread
What is the most common pathway for the dissemination of sarcomas?
Hematogenous spread
What is the most common metastatic bone site?
Vertebral column
Two types of bone metastasis.
Osteoblastic metastasis

Osteolytic metastasis
Pain in bone metastasis is treated with what?
Radiation
Radiodensity and prostate CA is associated with what?
Osteoblastic metastasis
Radiolucencies and Lung CA is associated with what?
Osteolytic metastasis
Osteoblastic metastasis show increased levels of what?
Serum Alkaline Phosphate
Why is the vertebral column the most common metastatic site in bone?
Due to Batson paravertebral venous plexus connecting vena cava with vertebral bodies.
Grade of CA is based on what?
Degree of differentiation

and

Number of mitoses
Grade of CA correlates with what?
Aggresiveness of neoplasm
What is the scale of CA Grades?
Four grades. Grade I is well differentiated and Grade IV is poorly differentiated.
Stage of CA determines what?
The extent of spread.
Stage of CA based on what?
1. Tumor size
2. Spread to lymph nodes
3. Presence/absence of metastases
What are the two major staging systems?
1. TNM (Tumor, Node, Metastases) Staging
2. AJC (American Joint Committee) on CA Staging
What is Dukes staging for?
Colon CA staging
Describe the stages of Dukes staging.
Dukes'A: Carcinoma limited to the wall of GI tract

Dukes'B: Carcinoma extends into the pericolic fat.

Dukes'C: Involvement of lymph nodes

Dukes'D: Visceral metastases
What are the predisposing factors of CA. x 4
1. Hereditary
2. Age and Childhood
3. Geographic and Ethnic
4. Environmental and Cultural
Inherited Cancer Syndromes exhibit what kind of inheritance pattern?
Autosomal Dominant
Describe the inherited predisposition to CA. x 3
1. Inherited CA Syndrome (AD)
2. Familial CA (same area)
3. Autosomal Recessive Syndromes of Defective DNA Repair
Which predisposition to CA has an early age of onset?
Familial CA
T/F - Familial CA are associated with a specific marker phenotype.
False